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This chapter served as a rudimentary introduction to C# It provided a means of familiarizing you with basic C# syntax Because of C# s similarity to C++ style languages, much of what I presented here might not have been new material However, C# and managed code do have some distinct characteristics, such as compilation down to CIL Although it is not unique, another key characteristic is that C# includes full support for object-oriented programming Even things such as reading and writing data to the console are object-oriented Object orientation is foundational to C#, and you will see this throughout this book The next chapter examines the fundamental data types that are part of the C# language, and discusses how you can use these data types with operands to form expressions
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1 S HelloWorld program, you got a feel for the C# language, its structure, basic syntax characteristics, and how to write the simplest of programs This chapter continues to discuss the C# basics by investigating the fundamental C# types
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Declaring Instantiating Assigning Using Strings as Arrays Explicit Cast Implicit Cast Without Casting
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1 Numeric Types
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Integer Types Floating-Point Types Decimal Type Literal Values Boolean Type Character Type Strings
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3 null and void
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Until now, you have worked with only a few primitive data types, with little explanation In C#, thousands of types exist, and you can combine types to create new types A few types in C#, however, are relatively simple and are considered the building blocks of all other types These types are predefined types or primitives The C# language s primitive types include eight integer types, two binary floating-point types for scientific calculations and one decimal float for financial calculations, one Boolean
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type, and a character type This chapter investigates these primitives, looks more closely at the string type, and introduces arrays
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The basic numeric types in C# have keywords associated with them These types include integer types, floating-point types, and a special floatingpoint type called decimal to store large numbers with no representation error
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Integer Types There are eight C# integer types This variety allows you to select a data type large enough to hold its intended range of values without wasting resources Table 21 lists each integer type
TABLE 21: Integer Types
Type
sbyte byte short ushort int uint long
Size
Range (Inclusive)
BCL Name
SystemSByte SystemByte SystemInt16 SystemUInt16 SystemInt32 SystemUInt32 SystemInt64
Signed
8 bits 8 bits 16 bits 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64 bits 64 bits
128 to 127 0 to 255 32,768 to 32,767 0 to 65,535 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
ulong
SystemUInt64
Included in Table 21 (and in Tables 22 and 23) is a column for the full name of each type All the fundamental types in C# have a short name and a full name The full name corresponds to the type as it is named in the Base Class Library (BCL) This name is the same across all languages and it uniquely identifies the type within an assembly Because of the fundamental
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nature of primitive types, C# also supplies keywords as short names or abbreviations to the full names of fundamental types From the compiler s perspective, both names are exactly the same, producing exactly the same code In fact, an examination of the resultant CIL code would provide no indication of which name was used
Language Contrast: C++ short Data Type
In C/C++, the short data type is an abbreviation for short int In C#,
short on its own is the actual data type
Floating-Point Types (float, double) Floating-point numbers have varying degrees of precision If you were to read the value of a floating-point number to be 01, it could very easily be 0099999999999999999 or 01000000000000000001 or some other number very close to 01 Alternatively, a large number such as Avogadro s number, 602E23, could be off by 99E9, which is something also exceptionally close to 602E23, considering its size The accuracy of a floating-point number is in proportion to the magnitude of the number it represents Accuracy, therefore, is determined by the number of significant digits, not by a fixed value such as 001 In other words, absolute precision is a function of magnitude and significant digits; the number of significant digits tells you about the relative precision C# supports the two floating-point number types listed in Table 22