923: Suppressing Finalization in Visual C#

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Listing 923: Suppressing Finalization
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// public void Close() { if(Stream != null) { StreamClose(); } if(File != null) { FileDelete(); } // Turn off calling the finalizer SystemGCSuppressFinalize(this); } //
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The f-reachable queue is a list of all the objects that are ready for garbage collection and that also have finalization implementations The runtime cannot garbage-collect objects with finalizers until after their finalization methods have been called However, garbage collection itself does not call the finalization method Rather, references to finalization objects are added to the f-reachable queue, thereby ironically delaying garbage collection This is because the f-reachable queue is a list of
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references, and as such, the objects are not garbage until after their finalization methods are called and the object references are removed from the f-reachable queue
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Language Contrast: C++ Deterministic Destruction
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Although finalizers are similar to destructors in C++, the fact that their execution cannot be determined at compile time makes them distinctly different The garbage collector calls C# finalizers sometime after they were last used, but before the program shuts down; C++ destructors are automatically called when the object (not a pointer) goes out of scope Although running the garbage collector can be a relatively expensive process, the fact that garbage collection is intelligent enough to delay running until process utilization is somewhat reduced offers an advantage over deterministic destructors, which will run at compile-time-defined locations, even when a processor is in high demand
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ADVANCED TOPIC Resurrecting Objects By the time an object s finalization method is called, all references to the object have disappeared and the only step before garbage collection is running the finalization code However, it is possible to add a reference inadvertently for a finalization object back into the root reference s graph In so doing, the rereferenced object is no longer inaccessible, and therefore, it is not ready for garbage collection However, if the finalization method for the object has already run, it will not necessarily be run again unless it is explicitly marked for finalization (using the GCReRegisterFinalize() method) Obviously, resurrecting objects like this is peculiar behavior and you should generally avoid it Finalization code should be simple and should focus on cleaning up only the resources that it references
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9: Well-Formed Types
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Resource Utilization and Finalization Guidelines When defining classes that manage resources, you should consider the following
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1 Implement finalize only on objects with resources that are scarce or expensive Finalization delays garbage collection 2 Objects with finalizers should implement IDisposable to support deterministic finalization 3 Finalization methods generally invoke the same code called by IDisposable, perhaps simply calling the Dispose() method 4 Finalizers should avoid causing any unhandled exceptions 5 Deterministic finalization methods such as Dispose() and Close() should call SystemGCSuppressFinalize() so that garbage collection occurs sooner and resource cleanup is not repeated 6 Code that handles resource cleanup may be invoked multiple times and should therefore be reentrant (For example, it should be possible to call Close() multiple times) 7 Resource cleanup methods should be simple and should focus on cleaning up resources referenced by the finalization instance only They should not reference other objects 8 If a base class implements Dispose(), then the derived implementation should call the base implementation 9 Generally, objects should be coded as unusable after Dispose() is called After an object has been disposed, methods other than Dispose() (which could potentially be called multiple times) should throw an ObjectDisposedException()
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In this preceding section, we discussed how to deterministically dispose of an object with a using statement and how the finalization queue will dispose of resources in the event that no deterministic approach is used A related pattern is lazy initialization or lazy loading Using lazy initialization, you can create (or obtain) objects when you need them rather than
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