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services that support Web architectural principles such as REST will probably be the first adopters of WSDL 20
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The specification that really kick-started the Web services revolution was Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 11, which defined an XML envelope for Web service messages, a processing model for Web service intermediaries, and an encoding algorithm for serializing objects as XML The SOAP envelope was extremely simple, consisting of a body and an optional header The SOAP body contained the application payload, and the SOAP header contained any other non-application data such as security, reliability, or transaction information The separation of messages into a header and a body is a well-accepted design practice The SOAP processing model specified how network intermediaries could process the SOAP header information before delivering the SOAP body to the Web service or client The SOAP envelope and processing model were fairly uncontentious and relatively easy to implement correctly On the other hand, the SOAP encoding algorithm proved to be much more problematic The root cause of the difficulty was that there is no universally accepted definition of objects Each object-oriented programming language implements many common features of objects, but adds differences For example, C++ supports multiple inheritance but Java only supports single inheritance There is simply no way to faithfully interchange objects between arbitrary programming languages The interoperability problems associated with SOAP encoding eventually led to its exclusion from the WS-I Basic Profile But even if there was a commonly accepted way to exchange objects, that would still be the wrong way to build robust distributed systems If you look at a typical programming language object, it contains more than just state information It also contains fields used to make navigation and other operations more efficient For example, a linked list really just represents a sequence of objects, but it contains forward and backward pointers There is no purpose in serializing these redundant fields in a Web service message They increase the bulk of the message, and the receiving end may elect to represent the sequence in some other way, for example, as an array Objects are wonderful for implementing applications but are really not a good basis for designing Web service interfaces Furthermore, a Web service should support a wide variety of application types, not just object-oriented systems As the name SOAP suggests, SOAP encoding was motivated by a desire to create a distributed object technology for the Web Earlier distributed object
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technologies such as CORBA, Java RMI, and DCOM failed to gain significant traction on the Internet When XML emerged, Microsoft proposed that it could be used as an architecturally neutral way to serialize graphs of objects SOAP was proposed as the carrier for these serialized object graphs and the serialization algorithm was dubbed SOAP encoding The fact that XML was used as the serialization syntax was incidental To use SOAP encoding, you had to have matching client and service implementations that understood the SOAP encoding algorithm The client and the server were assumed to both be implemented in conventional object-oriented programming languages The flaw in this approach is that exchanging objects is really not what the Web is all about The Web is highly heterogeneous, and there are many types of clients and ways of processing XML For example, XML can be processed using DOM, SAX, StAX, XPath, XSLT, and XQuery to name a few In fact, one of the design principles behind XML is that it should be easily processable by a variety of applications SOAP encoding clearly violates that principle A better approach to the design of Web service interfaces is to view Web service operations as document exchanges After all, business in the real world is transacted by the exchange of documents For example, I fill out a driver s license application form and the motor vehicle department sends me my driver s license I do not remotely invoke the driver s license procedure or send the motor vehicle department a serialized driver s license application form object graph Documents are very natural, and XML is an excellent way to represent them in information systems XML Schema is the W3C standard type system for XML documents But XML is really just a representation of a document, albeit a very convenient one for many purposes In general, there may be other useful representations of documents For example, if I just want to display the document to a human, then HTML or PDF is a better representation Or if I want a highly interactive AJAX-based Web user interface to display the document, then perhaps JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a good representation On the other hand, if I want to use the document in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) application, then document/literal SOAP is probably the best representation
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