Declaring a Method in C#.NET

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Declaring a Method
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Parameter Declaration Consider the declaration of the DisplayGreeting() and GetFullName() methods The text that appears between the parentheses of a method declaration is the parameter list Each parameter in the parameter list includes the type of the parameter along with the parameter name A comma separates each parameter in the list Behaviorally, parameters are virtually identical to local variables, and the naming convention of parameters follows accordingly Therefore, parameter names are camel case Also, it is not possible to declare a local variable (a variable declared inside a method) with the same name as a parameter of the containing method, because this would create two local variables of the same name
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Unlike Visual Basic and the C-style predecessors, C# does not allow specification of a default value within the method declaration so that the parameter is optional to the caller For example, it is not possible to declare a method as follows:
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void Method(int i=42){}
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Optional parameter type methods are still possible, but they are implemented via method overloading such that one version of the overloaded method does not include the parameters that are to be optional In other words, you should define a second method with the same name (overloading it) but without the defaulted parameter Inside this additional method, the code should assign the default value as part of the method implementation (see the section Method Overloading, later in this chapter)
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Method Return Declaration In addition to GetUserInput() and GetFullName() requiring parameters to be specified, both of these methods also include a method return You can
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4: Methods and Parameters
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tell there is a method return because a data type appears immediately before the method name of the method declaration For both GetUserInput() and GetFullName(), the data type is string Unlike parameters, only one method return is allowable Once a method includes a return data type, and assuming no error occurs, it is necessary to specify a return statement for each code path (or set of statements that may execute consecutively) within the method declaration A return statement begins with the return keyword followed by the value the method is returning For example, the GetFullName() method s return statement is return firstName + " " + lastName The C# compiler makes it imperative that the return type match the type of the data specified following the return keyword Return statements can appear in spots other than at the end of a method implementation, as long as all code paths include a return if the method has a return type For example, an if or switch statement at the beginning of a method implementation could include a return statement within the conditional or case statement; see Listing 45 for an example
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Listing 45: A return Statement before the End of a Method
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class Program { static void Main() { string command; // switch(command) { case "quit": return; // } // } }
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A return statement indicates a jump to the end of the method, so no break is required in a switch statement Once the execution encounters a return, the method call will end If particular code paths include statements following the return, the compiler will issue a warning that indicates that the additional statements
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Declaring a Method
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will never execute In spite of the C# allowance for early returns, code is generally more readable and easier to maintain if there is a single exit location rather than multiple returns sprinkled through various code paths of the method Specifying void as a return type indicates that there is no return from the method As a result, the method does not support assignment to a variable or use as a parameter Furthermore, the return statement becomes optional, and when it is specified, there is no value following the return keyword For example, the return of Main() in Listing 44 is void and there is no return statement within the method However, DisplayGreeting() includes a return statement that is not followed by any returned result
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