350: Replacing a continue with an if Statement in C#.NET

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Listing 350: Replacing a continue with an if Statement
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foreach (char letter in email) { if (insideDomain) { SystemConsoleWrite(letter); } else {
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Jump Statements
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if (letter == '@') { insideDomain = true; } } }
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The goto Statement With the advent of object-oriented programming and the prevalence of well-structured code, the existence of a goto statement within C# seems like an aberration to many experienced programmers However, C# supports goto, and it is the only method for supporting fall-through within a switch statement In Listing 351, if the /out option is set, code execution jumps to the default case using the goto statement; similarly for /f
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Listing 351: Demonstrating a switch with goto Statements
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// static void Main(string[] args) { bool isOutputSet = false; bool isFiltered = false; foreach (string option in args) { switch (option) { case "/out": isOutputSet = true; isFiltered = false; goto default; case "/f": isFiltered = true; isRecursive = false; goto default; default: if (isRecursive) { // Recurse down the hierarchy // } else if (isFiltered) { // Add option to list of filters // }
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3: Operators and Control Flow
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break; } } // }
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Output 326 shows the results of Listing 351
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OUTPUT 326:
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As demonstrated in Listing 351, goto statements are ugly In this particular example, this is the only way to get the desired behavior of a switch statement Although you can use goto statements outside switch statements, they generally cause poor program structure and you should deprecate them in favor of a more readable construct Note also that you cannot use a goto statement to jump from outside a switch statement into a label within a switch statement
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C# Preprocessor Directives
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Control flow statements evaluate conditional expressions at runtime In contrast, the C# preprocessor is invoked during compilation The preprocessor commands are directives to the C# compiler, specifying the sections of code to compile or identifying how to handle specific errors and warnings within the code C# preprocessor commands can also provide directives to C# editors regarding the organization of code Each preprocessor directive begins with a hash symbol (#), and all preprocessor directives must appear on one line A newline rather than a semicolon indicates the end of the directive A list of each preprocessor directive appears in Table 34
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C# Preprocessor Directives
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Language Contrast: C++ Preprocessing
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Languages such as C and C++ contain a preprocessor, a separate utility from the compiler that sweeps over code, performing actions based on special tokens Preprocessor directives generally tell the compiler how to compile the code in a file and do not participate in the compilation process itself In contrast, the C# compiler handles preprocessor directives as part of the regular lexical analysis of the source code As a result, C# does not support preprocessor macros beyond defining a constant In fact, the term precompiler is generally a misnomer for C#
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TABLE 34: Preprocessor Directives
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#if command
General Syntax Structure
#if preprocessor-expression code #endif #define conditional-symbol
Example
#if CSHARP2 ConsoleClear(); #endif #define CSHARP2
#define command #undef command #error command #warning command #pragma command #line command
#undef conditional-symbol
#undef CSHARP2
#error preproc-message
#error Buggy implementation
#warning preproc-message
#warning Needs code review
#pragma warning
#pragma warning disable 1030 #line 467 "TicTacToecs" #line default #region Methods #endregion
#line org-line new-line #line default
#region command
#region pre-proc-message code #endregion
3: Operators and Control Flow
Excluding and Including Code (#if, #elif, #else, #endif) Perhaps the most common use of preprocessor directives is in controlling when and how code is included For example, to write code that could be compiled by both C# 20 and later compilers and the prior version 12 compilers, you use a preprocessor directive to exclude C# 20-specific code when compiling with a 12 compiler You can see this in the tic-tac-toe example and in Listing 352
Listing 352: Excluding C# 20 Code from a C# 1x Compiler
#if CSHARP2 SystemConsoleClear(); #endif
In this case, you call the SystemConsoleClear() method, which is available only in the 20 CLI version and later Using the #if and #endif preprocessor directives, this line of code will be compiled only if the preprocessor symbol CSHARP2 is defined Another use of the preprocessor directive would be to handle differences among platforms, such as surrounding Windows- and Linux-specific APIs with WINDOWS and LINUX #if directives Developers often use these directives in place of multiline comments (/**/) because they are easier to remove by defining the appropriate symbol or via a search and replace A final common use of the directives is for debugging If you surround code with a #if DEBUG, you will remove the code from a release build on most IDEs The IDEs define the DEBUG symbol by default in a debug compile and RELEASE by default for release builds To handle an else-if condition, you can use the #elif directive within the #if directive, instead of creating two entirely separate #if blocks, as shown in Listing 353