3: Operators and Control Flow in Visual C#

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Output 324 shows the results of Listing 347
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OUTPUT 324:
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Player 1 was the winner
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Listing 347 uses a break statement when a player holds a winning position The break statement forces its enclosing loop (or a switch statement) to cease execution, and the program moves to the next line outside the loop For this listing, if the bit comparison returns true (if the board holds a winning position), the break statement causes execution to jump and display the winner
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BEGINNER TOPIC Bitwise Operators for Positions The tic-tac-toe example uses the bitwise operators (Appendix B) to determine which player wins the game First, the code saves the positions of each player into a bitmap called playerPositions (It uses an array so that the positions for both players can be saved) To begin, both playerPositions are 0 As each player moves, the bit corresponding to the move is set If, for example, the player selects cell 3, shifter is set to 3 1 The code subtracts 1 because C# is zero-based and you need to adjust for 0 as the first position instead of 1 Next, the code sets position, the bit corresponding to cell 3, using the shift operator 000000000000001 << shifter, where shifter now has a value of 2 Lastly, it sets playerPositions for the current player (subtracting 1 again to shift to zero-based) to 0000000000000100 Listing 348 uses |= so that previous moves are combined with the current move
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Listing 348: Setting the Bit That Corresponds to Each Player s Move
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// The number of places to shift // over in order to set a bit int position; // The bit which is to be set // intParse() converts "input" to an integer // "intParse(input) 1" because arrays int shifter;
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// are zero-based shifter = intParse(input) - 1; // Shift mask of 00000000000000000000000000000001 // over by cellLocations position = 1 << shifter; // Take the current player cells and OR them to set the // new position as well // Since currentPlayer is either 1 or 2, // subtract one to use currentPlayer as an // index in a 0-based array playerPositions[currentPlayer-1] |= position;
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Later in the program, you can iterate over each mask corresponding to winning positions on the board to determine whether the current player has a winning position, as shown in Listing 347
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The continue Statement In some instances, you may have a series of statements within a loop If you determine that some conditions warrant executing only a portion of these statements for some iterations, you use the continue statement to jump to the end of the current iteration and begin the next iteration The C# continue statement allows you to exit the current iteration (regardless of which additional statements remain) and jump to the loop conditional At that point, if the loop conditional remains true, the loop will continue execution Listing 349 uses the continue statement so that only the letters of the domain portion of an email are displayed Output 325 shows the results of Listing 349
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Listing 349: Determining the Domain of an Email Address
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class EmailDomain { static void Main() { string email; bool insideDomain = false; SystemConsoleWriteLine("Enter an email address: "); email = SystemConsoleReadLine();
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3: Operators and Control Flow
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SystemConsoleWrite("The email domain is: "); // Iterate through each letter in the email address foreach (char letter in email) { if (!insideDomain) { if (letter == '@') { insideDomain = true; } continue; } SystemConsoleWrite(letter); } } }
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OUTPUT 325:
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Enter an email address: mark@dotnetprogrammingcom The email domain is: dotnetprogrammingcom
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In Listing 349, if you are not yet inside the domain portion of the email address, you need to use a continue statement to jump to the next character in the email address In general, you can use an if statement in place of a continue statement, and this is usually more readable The problem with the continue statement is that it provides multiple exit points within the iteration, and this compromises readability In Listing 350, the sample has been rewritten, replacing the continue statement with the if/else construct to demonstrate a more readable version that does not use the continue statement
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