Here is a breakdown of the switch statement in Visual C#.NET

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Here is a breakdown of the switch statement
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governing-type-expression returns a value that is compatible with
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the governing types Allowable governing data types are sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, string, and an enum-type (covered in 8)
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constant is any constant expression compatible with the data type of
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the governing type
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statement is one or more statements to be executed when the govern-
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ing type expression equals the constant value
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Control Flow Statements, Continued jump expression is a jump statement such as a break or goto state-
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ment If the switch statement appears within a loop, then continue is also allowed A switch statement must have at least one case statement or a default statement In other words, switch(x){} is not valid Listing 346, with a switch statement, is semantically equivalent to the series of if statements in Listing 345
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Listing 346: Replacing the if Statement with a switch Statement
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static bool ValidateAndMove( int[] playerPositions, int currentPlayer, string input) { bool valid = false; // Check the current player's input switch (input) { case "1" : case "2" : case "3" : case "4" : case "5" : case "6" : case "7" : case "8" : case "9" : // Save/move as the player directed valid = true; break; case "" : case "quit" : valid = true; break; default : // If none of the other case statements // is encountered then the text is invalid SystemConsoleWriteLine( "\nERROR: Enter a value from 1-9 " + "Push ENTER to quit"); break; } return valid; }
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3: Operators and Control Flow
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In Listing 346, input is the governing type expression Since input is a string, all of the constants are strings If the value of input is 1, 2, 9, then the move is valid and you change the appropriate cell to match that of the current user s token (X or O) Once execution encounters a break statement, it immediately jumps to the statement following the switch statement The next portion of the switch looks for "" or "quit", and sets valid to true if input equals one of these values Ultimately, the default label is executed if no prior case constant was equivalent to the governing type There are several things to note about the switch statement
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Placing nothing within the switch block will generate a compiler
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warning, but the statement will still compile
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default does not have to appear last within the switch statement case statements appearing after default are evaluated When you use multiple constants for one case statement, they should
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appear consecutively, as shown in Listing 346
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The compiler requires a jump statement (usually a break)
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Language Contrast: C++ switch Statement Fall-Through
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Unlike C++, C# does not allow a switch statement to fall through from one case block to the next if the case includes a statement A jump statement is always required following the statement within a case The C# founders believed it was better to be explicit and require the jump expression in favor of code readability If programmers want to use a fall-through semantic, they may do so explicitly with a goto statement, as demonstrated in the section The goto Statement, later in this chapter
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Jump Statements
It is possible to alter the execution path of a loop In fact, with jump statements, it is possible to escape out of the loop or to skip the remaining portion of an iteration and begin with the next iteration, even when the conditional expression remains true This section considers some of the ways to jump the execution path from one location to another
Jump Statements
The break Statement To escape out of a loop or a switch statement, C# uses a break statement Whenever the break statement is encountered, the execution path immediately jumps to the first statement following the loop Listing 347 examines the foreach loop from the tic-tac-toe program
Listing 347: Using break to Escape Once a Winner Is Found
class TicTacToe // Declares the TicTacToe class { static void Main() // Declares the entry point of the program { int winner=0; // Stores locations each player has moved int[] playerPositions = {0,0}; // Hardcoded board position // X | 2 | O // ---+---+--// O | O | 6 // ---+---+--// X | X | X playerPositions[0] = 449; playerPositions[1] = 28; // Determine if there is a winner int[] winningMasks = { 7, 56, 448, 73, 146, 292, 84, 273 }; // Iterate through each winning mask to determine // if there is a winner foreach (int mask in winningMasks) { if ((mask & playerPositions[0]) == mask) { winner = 1; break; } else if ((mask & playerPositions[1]) == mask) { winner = 2; break; } } SystemConsoleWriteLine( "Player {0} was the winner", winner); } }