241: Initializing a Three-Dimensional Array in Visual C#

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Listing 241: Initializing a Three-Dimensional Array
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bool[,,] cells; cells = new bool[2,3,3] { // Player 1 moves { {true, false, false}, {true, false, false}, {true, false, true} },
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// X | | // ---+---+--// X | | // ---+---+--// X | | X
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2: Data Types
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// Player 2 { {false, {false, {false, }; moves false, true}, true, false}, true, true} } // | | O // ---+---+--// | O | // ---+---+--// | O |
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In this example, the board is initialized and the size of each rank is explicitly identified In addition to identifying the size as part of the new expression, the literal values for the array are provided The literal values of type bool[,,] are broken into two arrays of type bool[,], size 3x3 Each two-dimensional array is composed of three bool arrays, size 3 As already mentioned, each dimension in a multidimensional array must be consistently sized However, it is also possible to define a jagged array, which is an array of arrays Jagged array syntax is slightly different from that of a multidimensional array, and furthermore, jagged arrays do not need to be consistently sized Therefore, it is possible to initialize a jagged array as shown in Listing 242
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Listing 242: Initializing a Jagged Array
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int[][]cells = { new int[]{1, 0, 2, 0}, new int[]{1, 2, 0}, new int[]{1, 2}, new int[]{1} };
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A jagged array doesn t use a comma to identify a new dimension Rather, a jagged array defines an array of arrays In Listing 242, [] is placed after the data type int[], thereby declaring an array of type int[] Notice that a jagged array requires an array instance for each internal array In this example, you use new to instantiate the internal element of the jagged arrays Leaving out the instantiation would cause a compile error
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Using an Array You access a specific item in an array using the square bracket notation, known as the array accessor To retrieve the first item from an array, you specify zero as the index In Listing 243, the value of the fifth item (using
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the index 4 because the first item is index 0) in the languages variable is stored in the variable language
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Listing 243: Declaring and Accessing an Array
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string[] languages = new string[9]{ "C#", "COBOL", "Java", "C++", "Visual Basic", "Pascal", "Fortran", "Lisp", "J#"}; // Retrieve 5th item in languages array (Visual Basic) string language = languages[4];
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The square bracket notation is also used to store data in an array Listing 244 switches the order of "C++" and "Java"
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Listing 244: Swapping Data between Positions in an Array
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string[] languages = new string[9]{ "C#", "COBOL", "Java", "C++", "Visual Basic", "Pascal", "Fortran", "Lisp", "J#"}; // Save "C++" to variable called language string language = languages[3]; // Assign "Java" to the C++ position languages[3] = languages[2]; // Assign language to location of "Java" languages[2] = language;
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For multidimensional arrays, an element is identified with an index for each dimension, as shown in Listing 245
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Listing 245: Initializing a Two-Dimensional Array of Integers
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int[,] cells = { {1, 0, 2}, {0, 2, 0}, {1, 2, 1} }; // Set the winning tic-tac-toe move to be player 1 cells[1,0] = 1;
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Jagged array element assignment is slightly different because it is consistent with the jagged array declaration The first element is an array within the array of arrays The second index specifies the item within the selected array element (see Listing 246)
2: Data Types
Listing 246: Declaring a Jagged Array
int[][] cells = { new int[]{1, 0, 2}, new int[]{0, 2, 0}, new int[]{1, 2, 1} }; cells[1][0] = 1; //
Length
You can obtain the length of an array, as shown in Listing 247
Listing 247: Retrieving the Length of an Array
ConsoleWriteLine("There are {0} languages in the array", languagesLength);
Arrays have a fixed length; they are bound such that the length cannot be changed without re-creating the array Furthermore, overstepping the bounds (or length) of the array will cause the runtime to report an error This can occur by accessing (either retrieving or assigning) the array with an index for which no element exists in the array Such an error frequently occurs when you use the array length as an index into the array, as shown in Listing 248