Standard Query Operators in C#.NET

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Besides the methods on SystemObject, any type that implements IEnumerable<T> has only one method, GetEnumerator() And yet, it makes more than 50 methods available to all types implementing IEnumerable<T>, not including any overloading and this happens without needing to explicitly implement any method except the GetEnumerator() method The additional functionality is provided using C# 30 s extension methods and it all resides in the class SystemLinqEnumerable Therefore, including the using declarative for SystemLinq is all it takes to make these methods available Each method on IEnumerable<T> is a standard query operator; it provides querying capability over the collection on which it operates In the following sections, we will examine some of the most prominent of these standard query operators Many of the examples will depend on an Inventor and/or Patent class, both of which are defined in Listing 1411
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Listing 1411: Sample Classes for Use with Standard Query Operators
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; using SystemLinq;
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14: Collection Interfaces with Standard Query Operators
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public class Patent { // Title of the published application public string Title { get; set; } // The date the application was officially published public string YearOfPublication { get; set; } // A unique number assigned to published applications public string ApplicationNumber { get; set; } public long[] InventorIds { get; set; } public override string ToString() { return stringFormat("{0}({1})", Title, YearOfPublication); } } public class Inventor { public long Id { get; set; } public string Name { get; set; } public string City { get; set; } public string State { get; set; } public string Country { get; set; } public override string ToString() { return stringFormat("{0}({1}, {2})", Name, City, State); } } class Program { static void Main() { IEnumerable<Patent> patents = PatentDataPatents; Print(patents); ConsoleWriteLine(); IEnumerable<Inventor> inventors = PatentDataInventors; Print(inventors); } private static void Print<T>(IEnumerable<T> items) {
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foreach (T item in items) { ConsoleWriteLine(item); } } } public static class PatentData { public static readonly Inventor[] Inventors = new Inventor[] { new Inventor(){ Name="Benjamin Franklin", City="Philadelphia", State="PA", Country="USA", Id=1 }, new Inventor(){ Name="Orville Wright", City="Kitty Hawk", State="NC", Country="USA", Id=2}, new Inventor(){ Name="Wilbur Wright", City="Kitty Hawk", State="NC", Country="USA", Id=3}, new Inventor(){ Name="Samuel Morse", City="New York", State="NY", Country="USA", Id=4}, new Inventor(){ Name="George Stephenson", City="Wylam", State="Northumberland", Country="UK", Id=5}, new Inventor(){ Name="John Michaelis", City="Chicago", State="IL", Country="USA", Id=6}, new Inventor(){ Name="Mary Phelps Jacob", City="New York", State="NY", Country="USA", Id=7}, }; public static readonly Patent[] Patents = new Patent[] { new Patent(){ Title="Bifocals", YearOfPublication="1784", InventorIds=new long[] {1}}, new Patent(){ Title="Phonograph", YearOfPublication="1877", InventorIds=new long[] {1}}, new Patent(){ Title="Kinetoscope", YearOfPublication="1888", InventorIds=new long[] {1}}, new Patent(){ Title="Electrical Telegraph", YearOfPublication="1837", InventorIds=new long[] {4}}, new Patent(){
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14: Collection Interfaces with Standard Query Operators
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Title="Flying machine", YearOfPublication="1903", InventorIds=new long[] {2,3}}, new Patent(){ Title="Steam Locomotive", YearOfPublication="1815", InventorIds=new long[] {5}}, new Patent(){ Title="Droplet deposition apparatus", YearOfPublication="1989", InventorIds=new long[] {6}}, new Patent(){ Title="Backless Brassiere", YearOfPublication="1914", InventorIds=new long[] {7}}, }; }
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Listing 1411 also provides a selection of sample data Output 142 displays the results
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OUTPUT 142:
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Bifocals(1784) Phonograph(1877) Kinetoscope(1888) Electrical Telegraph(1837) Flying machine(1903) Steam Locomotive(1815) Droplet deposition apparatus(1989) Backless Brassiere(1914) Benjamin Franklin(Philadelphia, PA) Orville Wright(Kitty Hawk, NC) Wilbur Wright(Kitty Hawk, NC) Samuel Morse(New York, NY) George Stephenson(Wylam, Northumberland) John Michaelis(Chicago, IL) Mary Phelps Jacob(New York, NY)
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Filtering with Where() In order to filter out data from a collection, we need to provide a filter method that returns true or false, indicating whether a particular element should be included or not A delegate expression that takes an argument and returns a Boolean is called a predicate, and a collection s Where() method depends on predicates for identifying filter criteria, as shown in Listing 1412 The output appears in Output 143
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Standard Query Operators
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Listing 1412: Filtering with SystemLinqEnumerableWhere()
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; using SystemLinq; class Program { static void Main() { IEnumerable<Patent> patents = PatentDataPatents; patents = patentsWhere( patent => patentYearOfPublicationStartsWith("18")); Print(patents); } // }
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OUTPUT 143:
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Phonograph(1877) Kinetoscope(1888) Electrical Telegraph(1837) Steam Locomotive(1815)
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Notice that the code assigns the output of the Where() call back to IEnumerable<T> In other words, the output of IEnumerable<T>Where() is a new IEnumerable<T> collection In Listing 1412, it is IEnumerable<Patent> Less obvious is that the Where() expression argument has not necessarily executed at assignment time This is true for many of the standard query operators In the case of Where(), for example, the expression is passed in to the collection and saved but not executed Instead, execution of the expression occurs only when it is necessary to begin iterating over the items within the collection A foreach loop, for example, such as the one in Print() (in Listing 1411), will trigger the expression to be evaluated for each item within the collection At least conceptually, the Where() method should be understood as a means of specifying the query regarding what appears in the collection, not the actual work involved with iterating over to produce a new collection with potentially fewer items
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