Generic Internals in C#.NET

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EntityDictionary<Guid, Customer> customers;
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Prior to accessing this class, the runtime generates a specialized version of the EntityDictionary class that, instead of storing Customer as the specified data type, stores object references Suppose the next line of code creates an EntityDictionary of another reference type, called Order:
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EntityDictionary<Guid, Order> orders = new EntityDictionary<Guid, Order>();
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Unlike value types, no new specialized version of the EntityDictionary class is created for the EntityDictionary that uses the Order type Instead, an instance of the version of EntityDictionary that uses object references is instantiated and the orders variable is set to reference it To still gain the advantage of type safety, for each object reference substituted in place of the type parameter, an area of memory for an Order
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Language Contrast: Java Generics
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Sun s implementation of generics for Java occurs within the compiler entirely, not within the Java Virtual Machine Sun did this to ensure that no updated Java Virtual Machine would need to be distributed because generics were used The Java implementation uses syntax similar to the templates in C++ and the generics in C#, including type parameters and constraints But because it does not treat value types differently from reference types, the unmodified Java Virtual Machine cannot support generics for value types As such, generics in Java do not gain the execution efficiency of C# Indeed, whenever the Java compiler needs to return data, it injects automatic downcasts from the specified constraint, if one is declared, or the base Object type if it is not declared Further, the Java compiler generates a single specialized type at compile time, which it then uses to instantiate any constructed type Finally, because the Java Virtual Machine does not support generics natively, there is no way to ascertain the type parameter for an instance of a generic type at execution time, and other uses of reflection are severely limited
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11: Generics
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type is specifically allocated and the pointer is set to that memory reference Suppose you then encountered a line of code to instantiate an EntityDictionary of a Customer type as follows:
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customers = new EntityDictionary<Guid, Customer>();
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As with the previous use of the EntityDictionary class created with the Order type, another instance of the specialized EntityDictionary class (the one based on object references) is instantiated and the pointers contained therein are set to reference a Customer type specifically This implementation of generics greatly reduces code bloat by reducing to one the number of specialized classes created by the compiler for generic classes of reference types Even though the runtime uses the same internal generic type definition when the type parameter on a generic reference type varies, this behavior is superseded if the type parameter is a value type Dictionary<int, Customer>, Dictionary<Guid, Order>, and Dictionary<long, Order> will require new internal type definitions, for example
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Generics will significantly transform C# 10 coding style In virtually all cases in which programmers used object within C# 10 code, generics would be a better choice in C# 20 to the extent that object should act as a flag for a possible generics implementation The increased type safety, cast avoidance, and reduction of code bloat offer significant improvements Similarly, where code traditionally used the SystemCollections namespace, SystemCollectionsGenerics should be selected instead s 16 looks at one of the most pervasive generic namespaces, SystemCollectionsGeneric This namespace is composed almost exclusively of generic types It provides clear examples of how some types that originally used objects were then converted to use generics However, before we tackle these topics, we first investigate expressions, which provide a significant C# 30 improvement for working with collections
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extensively how to create classes using many of the built-in C# language facilities for object-oriented development The objects instantiated from classes encapsulate data and operations on data As you create more and more classes, you see common patterns in the relationships between these classes One such pattern is to pass an object that describes a method that the receiver can invoke The use of methods as a data type and their support for publish-subscribe patterns is the focus of this chapter Both C# 20 and C# 30 introduced additional syntax for programming in this area Although C# 30 supports the previous syntax completely, in many cases C# 30 will deprecate the use of the older-style syntax However, I have placed the earlier
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