Language Contrast: JavaInner Classes in C#

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Java includes not only the concept of a nested class, but also the concept of an inner class Inner classes correspond to objects that are associated with the containing class instance rather than just a syntactic relationship In C#, you can achieve the same structure by including an instance field of a nested type within the class
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Partial Classes
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Another language feature added in C# 20 is partial classes Partial classes are portions of a class that the compiler can combine to form a complete class Although you could define two or more partial classes within the same file, the general purpose of a partial class is to allow the splitting of a class definition across multiple files Primarily this is useful for tools that are generating or modifying code With partial classes, the tools can work on a file separate from the one the developer is manually coding C# 20 declares a partial class by appending the contextual keyword, partial, to the definition, as Listing 540 shows
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Listing 540 Defining a Partial Class
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// File: Program1cs partial class Program { } // File: Program2cs partial class Program { }
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In this case, each portion of Program is placed into a separate file, as identified by the comment Besides their use with code generators, another common use of partial classes is to place any nested classes into their own files This is in accordance with the coding convention that places each class definition within its own file For example, Listing 541 places the ProgramCommandLine class into a file separate from the core Program members
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Listing 541 Defining a Nested Class in a Separate Partial Class
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// File: Programcs partial class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { CommandLine commandLine = new CommandLine(args); switch (commandLineAction) { // } } } // File: Program+CommandLinecs partial class Program { // Define a nested class for processing the command line private class CommandLine { // } }
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Partial classes do not allow extending compiled classes, classes in other assemblies They are only a means of splitting a class implementation across multiple files within the same assembly
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Summary
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This chapter explained C# constructs for classes and object orientation in C# This included a discussion of fields, and a discussion of how to access them on a class instance Whether to store data on a per-instance basis or across all instances of a type was a key concept discussed Static data is associated with the class and instance data is stored on each object The chapter explored encapsulation in the context of access modifiers for methods and data The C# construct of properties was introduced, and you saw how to use it to encapsulate private fields The next chapter focuses on how to associate classes with each other via inheritance, and the benefits derived from this object-oriented construct
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6 Inheritance
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The last chapter discussed association relationships, how one class can reference another class or set of classes using fields or properties This chapter looks at another relationship between classes, that of inheritance and building a class hierarchy
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Beginner Topic: Inheritance Definitions
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The previous chapter provided an overview of inheritance Here's a review of the defined terms Derive/inherit: Specialize a base class to include additional members or customization of the base class members Derived/sub/child type:The specialized type that inherits the members of the more general type Base/super/parent type: The general type whose members a derived type inherits Inheritance forms: An "is a" relationship The derived type is always implicitly also of the base type Just as a hard drive is a storage device, any other type derived from the storage device type is a type of storage device
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Derivation
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It is reasonably common to want to extend a given type to add functionality, such as behavior and data The purpose of inheritance is to do exactly that Given a Person class, you create an Employee class that additionally contains EmployeeId and Department properties The reverse approach may also occur Given, for example, a Contact class within a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), you decide you also can add calendaring support Toward this effort, you create an Appointment class However, instead of redefining the methods and properties that are common to both classes, you refactor the Contact class Specifically, you move the common methods and properties on Contact into a base class called PdaItem from which both Contact and Appointment derive, as shown in Figure 61
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