A Simple Method Call in Visual C#

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Listing 42 A Simple Method Call
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The parts of the method call include the namespace, type name, method name, parameters, and return data type A period separates each part of a fully qualified method name
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Namespace
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The first item in the method call is the namespace The namespace is a categorization mechanism for grouping all types related to a particular set of functionality The namespace helps avoid type name collisions For example, the compiler can distinguish between two types with the name "Program" as long as each type has a different namespace The result is that the Main method in each class could be referred to using AwlWindowsProgramMain() or AwlConsoleProgramMain()
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SystemCollections , SystemCollectionsGenerics, SystemIO, and SystemRuntimeSerializationFormatters are valid names for a namespace Namespaces can include
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periods within their names This enables the namespaces to give the appearance of being
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hierarchical This improves human readability only, since the compiler treats all namespaces at a single level For example, SystemCollectionsGenerics appears within the SystemCollections namespace hierarchy, but to the compiler these are simply two entirely different namespaces In Listing 42, the namespace for the Console type is System The System namespace contains the types that enable the programmer to perform many fundamental programming activities Virtually all C# programs use types within the System namespace Table 41 provides a listing of other common namespaces
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Table 41 Common Namespaces
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Namespace
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System
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Description Contains the definition of fundamental types, conversion between types, mathematics, program invocation, and environment management Includes types for working with collections of objects Collections can generally follow either list or dictionary type storage mechanisms This C# 20 namespace works with strongly typed collections that depend on generics (type parameters) Contains types used for working with data that is stored within a database Contains types for drawing to the display device and working with images Contains types for working with files and directories and provides capabilities for manipulating, loading, and saving files Includes types for working with strings and various text encodings, and for converting between those encodings This namespace includes a subnamespace called SystemTextRegularExpressions, which provides access to regular-expression-related APIs Handles thread manipulation and multithreaded programming A collection of types that enable browser-to-server communication, generally over HTTP The functionality within this namespace is used to support a NET technology called ASPNET Contains types that send and retrieve data over HTTP using the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Includes types for creating rich user interfaces and the components within them Contains standards-based support for XML processing
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SystemCollections
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SystemCollectionsGenerics
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SystemData
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SystemDrawing
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SystemIO
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SystemText
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SystemThreading
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SystemWeb
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SystemWebServices
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SystemWindowsForms
SystemXml
It is not always necessary to provide the namespace when calling a method For example, if you call a method in the same namespace as the target method, then the compiler can infer the namespace to be the same as the caller's namespace Later in this chapter, you see how the using directive avoids
the need for a namespace qualifier as well
Type Name
Calls to static methods ( 5 covers static versus instance methods) require the type name qualifier as long as the target method is not within the same class (such as a call from HelloWorldMain() to ConsoleWriteLine()) However, just as with the namespace, C# allows the elimination of the type name from a method call whenever the method is available on the containing type (Examples of method calls like this appear in Listing 44) The type name is unnecessary because the compiler infers the type from the calling method If the compiler can make no such inference, the name must provided as part of the method call At their core, types are a means of grouping together methods and their associated data For example, Console is the type name that contains the Write(), WriteLine(), and ReadLine() methods (among others) All of these methods are in the same "group" because they belong to the Console type
Scope
You already learned that scope bounds declaration and accessibility Scope also defines the inferred call context A method call between two methods in the same namespace does not require the namespace qualifier Similarly, two calls within the same class do not require the type name because the scope is the same