Using the Logical Negation Operator in C#

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Listing 334 Using the Logical Negation Operator
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boolresult; bool valid = false; result = !valid; // Displays "result = True" SystemConsoleWriteLine("result = {0}", result);
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Output 316
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result = True
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To begin, valid is set to false You then use the negation operator on valid and assign a new value to result
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Conditional Operator ( )
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In place of an if statement that functionally returns a value, you can use the conditional operator instead The conditional operator is a question mark ( ), and the general format is as follows: conditional expression1: expression2;
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The conditional operator is a ternary operator, because it has three operands: conditional, expression1, and expression2 If the conditional evaluates to TRue, then the conditional operator returns expression1 Alternatively, if the conditional evaluates to false, then it returns expression2
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Listing 335 is an example of how to use the conditional operator The full listing of this program appears in Appendix B
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Listing 335 Conditional Operator
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public class TicTacToe { public static string Main() { // Initially set the currentPlayer to Player 1; int currentPlayer = 1; // for (int turn = 1; turn <= 10; turn++) { // // Switch players currentPlayer = (currentPlayer == 2) 1 : 2; } } }
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The program swaps the current player To do this, it checks whether the current value is 2 This is the conditional portion of the conditional statement If the result is true, then the conditional operator returns the value 1 Otherwise, it returns 2 Unlike an if statement, the result of the conditional operator must be assigned (or passed as a parameter) It cannot appear as an entire statement on its own Use the conditional operator sparingly, because readability is often sacrificed and a simple if/else statement may be more appropriate
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Bitwise Operators (<<, >>, |, &, ^, ~)
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An additional set of operators that is common to virtually all programming languages is the set of operators for manipulating values in their binary formats: the bit operators
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Beginner Topic: Bits and Bytes
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All values within a computer are represented in a binary format of 1s and 0s, called bits Bits are grouped together in sets of eight, called bytes In a byte, each successive bit corresponds to a value of 2 raised to a power, starting from 20 on the right, to 27 on the left, as shown in Figure 31
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Figure 31 Corresponding Placeholder Values
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In many instances, particularly when dealing with low-level or system services, information is retrieved as binary data In order to manipulate these devices and services, you need to perform manipulations of binary data As shown in Figure 32, each box corresponds to a value of 2 raised to the power shown The value of the byte (8-bit number) is the sum of the powers of 2 of all of the eight bits that are set to 1
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Figure 32 Calculating the Value of an Unsigned Byte
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The binary translation just described is significantly different for signed numbers Signed numbers (long, short, int ) are represented using a 2s complement notation With this notation, negative numbers behave differently than positive numbers Negative numbers are identified by a 1 in the leftmost location If the leftmost location contains a 1, you add the locations with 0s rather than the locations with 1s Each location corresponds to the negative power of 2 value Furthermore, from the result, it is also necessary to subtract 1 This is demonstrated in Figure 33
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Figure 33 Calculating the Value of a Signed Byte
Therefore, 1111 1111 1111 1111 corresponds to a1 and 1111 1111 1111 1001 holds the value7 1000 0000 0000 0000 corresponds to the lowest negative value that a 16-bit integer can hold
Shift Operators (<<, >>, <<=, >>=)
Sometimes you want to shift the binary value of a number to the right or left In executing a left shift, all bits in a number's binary representation are shifted to the left by the number of locations specified by the operand on the right of the shift operator Zeroes are then used to backfill the locations on the right side of the binary number A right-shift operator does almost the same thing in the opposite direction However, if the number is negative, then the values used to backfill the left side of the binary number are ones and not zeroes The shift operators are >> and <<, the right-shift and left-shift operators, respectively In addition, there are combined shift and assignment operators, <<= and >>= Consider the following example Suppose you had the int value 7, which would have a binary representation of 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1001 In Listing 336 you right-shift the binary representation of the number7 by two locations