Figure 92 XML Comments as Tips in Visual Studio IDE in C#.NET

Create QR-Code in C#.NET Figure 92 XML Comments as Tips in Visual Studio IDE
Figure 92 XML Comments as Tips in Visual Studio IDE
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These coding tips offer significant assistance in large programs, especially when multiple developers share code For this to work, however, the developer obviously must take the time to enter the XML comments within the code and then direct the compiler to create the XML file The next section explains how to accomplish this (See Listing 917)
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Associating XML Comments with Programming Constructs
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Consider the listing of the DataStorage class, as shown in Listing 917
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Listing 917 Commenting Code with XML Comments
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Listing 917 uses both XML delimited comments that span multiple lines, and single-line XML comments where each line requires a separate three-forward-slash delimiter (/// ) Since XML comments are designed to document the API, they are intended for use only in association with C# declarations, such as the class or method shown in Listing 917 Any attempt to place an XML
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comment inline with the code, unassociated with a declaration, will result in a warning by the compiler The compile makes the association simply because the XML comment appears immediately before the declaration Although C# allows any XML tag in comments, the C# standard explicitly defines a set of tags to be used <seealso cref="SystemIOStreamWriter"/> is an example of using the seealso tag This tag creates a link between the text and the SystemIOStreamWriter class
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Generating an XML Documentation File
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The compiler will check that the XML comments are well formed, and will issue a warning if they are not To generate the XML file, you need to use the /doc option when compiling, as shown in Output 98
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Output 98
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>csc /doc:Commentsxml DataStoragecs
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The /doc option will create an XML file based on the name specified after the colon Using the DataStorage class shown in Listing 917 and the compiler options listed here, the resulting CommentSamplesXML file appears as shown in Listing 918
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Listing 918 Commentsxml
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< xml version="10" > <doc> <assembly> <name>DataStorage</name> </assembly> <members> <member name="T:DataStorage"> <summary> DataStorage is used to persist and retrieve employee data from the files </summary> </member> <member name="M:DataStorageStore(Employee)"> <summary> Save an employee object to a file named with the Employee name </summary> <remarks> This method uses <seealso cref="T:SystemIOFileStream"/> in addition to <seealso cref="T:SystemIOStreamWriter"/> </remarks> <param name="employee"> The employee to persist to a vile</param> <date>January 1, 2000</date> </member> <member name="M:DataStorageLoad(SystemString,SystemString)"> <summary> Loads up an employee object </summary>
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<remarks> This method uses <seealso cref="T:SystemIOFileStream"/> in addition to <seealso cref="T:SystemIOStreamReader"/> </remarks> <param name="firstName"> The first name of the employee</param> <param name="lastName"> The last name of the employee</param> <returns> The employee object corresponding to the names </returns> <date>January 1, 2000</date>* </member> </members> </doc>
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The resulting file includes only the amount of metadata that is necessary to associate an element back to its corresponding C# declaration This is important to note, because in general, it is necessary to use the XML output in combination with the generated assembly in order to produce any meaningful documentation Fortunately, tools such as the open source project NDoc [2] can generate documentation
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[2] See
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Garbage Collection
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Garbage collection is obviously a core function of the runtime Its purpose is to restore memory consumed by objects that are no longer referenced The emphasis in this statement lies with memory and references The garbage collector is only responsible for restoring memory; it does not handle other resources such as database connections, handles (files, windows, and so on), network ports, and hardware devices such as serial ports Also, the garbage collector determines what to clean up based on whether any references remain Implicitly this means that the garbage collector works with reference objects and restores memory on the heap only Additionally, it means that maintaining a reference to an object will prevent the garbage collector from reusing the memory consumed by the object
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Many details about the garbage collector pertain to the specific CLI implementation, and therefore, they could vary This section discusses the NET implementation, since it is the most prevalent In NET, the garbage collector uses a mark-and-compact algorithm At the beginning of a garbage collection cycle, it identifies all root references to objects Root references are any references from static variables, CPU registers, and local variables or parameter instances (and f-reachable objects) Given this list, the garbage collector is able to walk the tree identified by each root reference and determine recursively all the objects to which the root references point In this manner, the garbage collector identifies a graph of all reachable objects Instead of enumerating all the inaccessible objects, the garbage collector performs garbage collection by compacting all reachable objects next to each other, thereby overwriting any memory consumed by objects that are inaccessible (and, therefore, are garbage) Locating and moving all reachable objects requires that the system maintain a consistent state while the garbage collector runs To achieve this, all managed threads within the process halt during garbage collection This obviously can result in brief pauses in an application, which is generally insignificant unless a particularly large garbage collection cycle is necessary In order to reduce the likelihood of a garbage collection cycle at an inopportune time, however, the SystemGC object includes a Collect() method, which can be called immediately before the critical performing code This will not prevent the garbage collector from running, but it will reduce the likelihood that it will run, assuming no intense memory utilization occurs during the critical performance code One perhaps surprising aspect of NET garbage collection behavior is that not all garbage is necessarily cleaned up during an iteration Studies of object lifetimes reveal that recently created objects are more likely to need garbage collection than long-standing objects Capitalizing on this behavior, the NET garbage collector is generational, attempting to clean up short-lived objects more frequently than objects that have already survived a garbage collection iteration Specifically, there are three generations of objects Each time an object survives a garbage collection cycle, it is moved to the next generation, until it ends up in generation two (counting starts from zero) The garbage collector then runs more frequently for objects in generation zero than it does for objects in generation two
Ultimately, in spite of the trepidation that NET faced during its early beta releases when compared with unmanaged code, time has shown that NET's garbage collection is extremely efficient More importantly, the gains created in development productivity have far outweighed the costs in development for the few cases where managed code is dropped to optimize particular algorithms