transient will be serialized when the defaultWriteObject method is invoked Therefore in Java

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transient will be serialized when the defaultWriteObject method is invoked Therefore
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every instance field that can be made transient should be made so This includes redundant fields, whose values can be computed from primary data fields, such as a cached hash value It also includes fields whose values are tied to one particular run of the JVM, such as a long field representing a pointer to a native data structure Before deciding to make a field nontransient, convince yourself that its value is part of the logical state of the object If you use a custom serialized form, most or all of the instance fields should be labeled transient, as in the StringList example shown above If you are using the default serialized form and you have labeled one or more fields
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transient, remember that these fields will be initialized to their default values when an instance is deserialized: null for object reference fields, zero for numeric primitive fields, and false for boolean fields [JLS, 455] If these values are unacceptable for any transient
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fields, you must provide a readObject method that invokes the defaultReadObject method and then restores transient fields to acceptable values (Item 56) Alternatively, these fields can be lazily initialized the first time they are used Regardless of what serialized form you choose, declare an explicit serial version UID in every serializable class you write This eliminates the serial version UID as a potential source of incompatibility (Item 54) There is also a small performance benefit If no serial version UID is provided, an expensive computation is required to generate one at run time Declaring a serial version UID is simple Just add this line to your class:
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private static final long serialVersionUID = randomLongValue ;
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It doesn't much matter which value you choose for randomLongValue Common practice dictates that you generate the value by running the serialver utility on the class, but it's also fine to pick a number out of thin air If you ever want to make a new version of the class that is incompatible with existing versions, merely change the value in the declaration This will cause attempts to deserialize serialized instances of previous versions to fail with an
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To summarize, when you have decided that a class should be serializable (Item 54), think hard about what the serialized form should be Only use the default serialized form if it is a reasonable description of the logical state of the object; otherwise design a custom serialized form that aptly describes the object You should allocate as much time to designing the serialized form of a class as you allocate to designing its exported methods Just as you cannot eliminate exported methods from future versions, you cannot eliminate fields from the serialized form; they must be preserved forever to ensure serialization compatibility Choosing the wrong serialized form can have permanent, negative impact on the complexity and performance of a class
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Item 56:Write readObject methods defensively
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Item 24 contains an immutable date-range class containing mutable private date fields The class goes to great lengths to preserve its invariants and its immutability by defensively copying Date objects in its constructor and accessors Here is the class:
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//Immutable class that uses defensive copying public final class Period { private final Date start; private final Date end; /** * @param start the beginning of the period * @param end the end of the period; must not precede start * @throws IllegalArgument if start is after end * @throws NullPointerException if start or end is null */ public Period(Date start, Date end) { thisstart = new Date(startgetTime()); thisend = new Date(endgetTime());
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public Date start () { return (Date) startclone(); } public Date end () { return (Date) endclone(); } public String toString() { return start + " - " + end; } // Remainder omitted }
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Suppose you decide that you want this class to be serializable Because the physical representation of a Period object exactly mirrors its logical data content, it is not unreasonable to use the default serialized form (Item 55) Therefore, it might seem that all you have to do to make the class serializable is to add the words implements Serializable to the class declaration If you did so, however, the class would no longer guarantee its critical invariants The problem is that the readObject method is effectively another public constructor, and it demands all of the same care as any other constructor Just as a constructor must check its arguments for validity (Item 23) and make defensive copies of parameters where appropriate (Item 24), so must a readObject method If a readObject method fails to do either of these things, it is a relatively simple matter for an attacker to violate the class's invariants Loosely speaking, readObject is a constructor that takes a byte stream as its sole parameter In normal use, the byte stream is generated by serializing a normally constructed instance The problem arises when readObject is presented with a byte stream that is artificially constructed to generate an object that violates the invariants of its class Assume that we simply added implements Serializable to the class declaration for Period This ugly program generates a Period instance whose end precedes its start:
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public class BogusPeriod { //Byte stream could not have come from real Period instance private static final byte[] serializedForm = new byte[] { (byte)0xac, (byte)0xed, 0x00, 0x05, 0x73, 0x72, 0x00, 0x06, 0x50, 0x65, 0x72, 0x69, 0x6f, 0x64, 0x40, 0x7e, (byte)0xf8, 0x2b, 0x4f, 0x46, (byte)0xc0, (byte)0xf4, 0x02, 0x00, 0x02, 0x4c, 0x00, 0x03, 0x65, 0x6e, 0x64, 0x74, 0x00, 0x10, 0x4c, 0x6a, 0x61, 0x76, 0x61, 0x2f, 0x75, 0x74, 0x69, 0x6c, 0x2f, 0x44, 0x61, 0x74, 0x65, 0x3b, 0x4c, 0x00, 0x05, 0x73, 0x74, 0x61, 0x72, 0x74, 0x71, 0x00, 0x7e, 0x00, 0x01, 0x78, 0x70, 0x73, 0x72, 0x00, 0x0e, 0x6a, 0x61, 0x76, 0x61, 0x2e, 0x75, 0x74, 0x69, 0x6c, 0x2e, 0x44, 0x61, 0x74, 0x65, 0x68, 0x6a, (byte)0x81, 0x01, 0x4b, 0x59, 0x74, 0x19, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00, 0x78, 0x70, 0x77, 0x08, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x66, (byte)0xdf, 0x6e, 0x1e, 0x00, 0x78, 0x73, 0x71, 0x00, 0x7e, 0x00, 0x03, 0x77, 0x08, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, (byte)0xd5, 0x17, 0x69, 0x22, 0x00, 0x78 }; public static void main(String[] args) { Period p = (Period) deserialize(serializedForm); Systemoutprintln(p); }
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Effective Java: Programming Language Guide //Returns the object with the specified serialized form public static Object deserialize(byte[] sf) { try { InputStream is = new ByteArrayInputStream(sf); ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(is); return oisreadObject(); } catch (Exception e) { throw new IllegalArgumentException(etoString()); } } }
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The byte array literal used to initialize serializedForm was generated by serializing a normal Period instance and hand-editing the resulting byte stream The details of the stream are unimportant to the example, but if you're curious, the serialization byte stream format is described in the Java Object Serialization Specification [Serialization, 6] If you run this program, it prints Fri Jan 01 12:00:00 PST 1999 - Sun Jan 01 12:00:00 PST 1984 Making Period serializable enabled us to create an object that violates its class invariants To fix this problem, provide a readObject method for Period that calls defaultReadObject and then checks the validity of the deserialized object If the validity check fails, the readObject method throws an InvalidObjectException, preventing the deserialization from completing:
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private void readObject(ObjectInputStream s) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException { sdefaultReadObject(); // Check that our invariants are satisfied if (startcompareTo(end) > 0) throw new InvalidObjectException(start +" after "+ end);
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While this fix prevents an attacker from creating an invalid Period instance, there is a more subtle problem still lurking It is possible to create a mutable Period instance by fabricating a byte stream that begins with a byte stream representing a valid Period instance and then appends extra references to the private Date fields internal to the Period instance The attacker reads the Period instance from the ObjectInputStream and then reads the rogue object references that were appended to the stream These references give the attacker access to the objects referenced by the private Date fields within the Period object By mutating these Date instances, the attacker can mutate the Period instance The following class demonstrates this attack:
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public class MutablePeriod { // A period instance public final Period period; // period's start field, to which we shouldn't have access public final Date start; // period's end field, to which we shouldn't have access public final Date end;
Effective Java: Programming Language Guide public MutablePeriod() { try { ByteArrayOutputStream bos = new ByteArrayOutputStream(); ObjectOutputStream out = new ObjectOutputStream(bos); // Serialize a valid Period instance outwriteObject(new Period(new Date(), new Date())); /* * Append rogue "previous object refs" for internal * Date fields in Period For details, see "Java * Object Serialization Specification," Section 64 */ byte[] ref = { 0x71, 0, 0x7e, 0, 5 }; // Ref #5 boswrite(ref); // The start field ref[4] = 4; // Ref # 4 boswrite(ref); // The end field // Deserialize Period and "stolen" Date references ObjectInputStream in = new ObjectInputStream( new ByteArrayInputStream(bostoByteArray())); period = (Period) inreadObject(); start = (Date) inreadObject(); end = (Date) inreadObject(); } catch (Exception e) { throw new RuntimeException(etoString()); } } }
To see the attack in action, run the following program:
public static void main(String[] args) { MutablePeriod mp = new MutablePeriod(); Period p = mpperiod; Date pEnd = mpend; // Let's turn back the clock pEndsetYear(78); Systemoutprintln(p); // Bring back the 60's! pEndsetYear(69); Systemoutprintln(p); }
Running this program produces the following output:
Wed Mar 07 23:30:01 PST 2001 - Tue Mar 07 23:30:01 PST 1978 Wed Mar 07 23:30:01 PST 2001 - Fri Mar 07 23:30:01 PST 1969
While the Period instance is created with its invariants intact, it is possible to modify its internal components at will Once in possession of a mutable Period instance, an attacker might cause great harm by passing the instance on to a class that depends on Period's