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The equal function assumes that the second sequence is the same size as the first, so it does not need an ending iterator Because we pass srbegin() as the starting point for the second sequence, the effect of this call is to compare values from the back of s to values in the front The equal function will compare the first character in s with the last Then it will compare the second to the next to last, and so on This behavior is precisely what we want
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613 Finding URLs
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As the last of our examples of character manipulation, let's write a function that finds Web addresses, called uniform resource locators (URLs), that are embedded in a string We might use such a function by creating a single string that holds the entire contents of a document The function would then scan the document and find all the URLs in it A URL is a sequence of characters of the form protocol-name: //resource-name where protocol-name contains only letters, and resource-name may consist of letters, digits, and certain punctuation characters Our function will take a string argument and will look for instances of :// in that string Each time we find such an instance, we'll look for the protocol-name that precedes it, and the resource-name that follows it Because we want our function to find all the URLs in its input, we'll want it to return a vector<string>, with one element for each URL The function executes by moving the iterator b through the string, looking for the characters :// that might be a part of a URL If we find these characters, it looks backward to find the protocol-name, and it looks forward to find the resource-name:
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vector<string> find_urls(const string& s) { vector<string> ret; typedef string::const_iterator iter; iter b = sbegin(), e = send(); // look through the entire input while (b != e) { // look for one or more letters followed by :// b = url_beg(b, e); // if we found it if (b != e) { // get the rest of the URL iter after = url_end(b, e); // remember the URL retpush_back(string(b, after)); // advance b and check for more URLs on this line b = after; } } return ret; }
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We start by declaring ret, which is the vector into which we will put the URLs as we find them, and by obtaining iterators that delimit the string We will have to write the url_beg and url_end functions, which will find the beginning and end of any URL in the input The url_beg function will be responsible for identifying whether a valid URL is present and, if so, for returning an iterator that refers to the first character of the protocol-name If it does not identify a URL in the input, then it will return its second argument (e in this case) to indicate failure If url_beg finds a URL, the next task is to find the end of the URL by calling url_end That function will search from the given position until it reaches either the end of the input or a character that cannot be part of a URL It will return
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an iterator positioned one past the last character in the URL Thus, after the calls to url_beg and url_end, the iterator b denotes the beginning of a URL, and the iterator after denotes the position one past the last character in the URL:
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We construct a new string from the characters in this range, and push that string onto the back of ret All that remains is to increment the value of b and to look for the next URL Because URLs cannot overlap one another, we set b to (one past) the end of the URL that we just found, and continue the while loop until we've looked at all the input Once that loop exits, we return the vector that contains the URLs to our caller Now we have to think about url_beg and url_end The url_end function is simpler, so we'll start there:
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string::const_iterator url_end(string::const_iterator b, string::const_iterator e) { return find_if(b, e, not_url_char); }
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This function just forwards its work to the library find_if function, which we used in 611/103 The predicate that we pass to find_if is one that we will write, named not_url_char It will return true when passed a character that cannot be in a URL:
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bool not_url_char(char c) { // characters, in addition to alphanumerics, that can appear in a URL static const string url_ch = "~;/ :@= // see whether c can appear in a URL and return the negative return !(isalnum(c) || find(url_chbegin(), url_chend(), c) != url_chend()); }
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Despite being small, this function uses a fair bit of new material First is the use of the static storage class specifier Local variables that are declared to be static are preserved across invocations of the function Thus, we will create and initialize the string url_ch only on the first call to not_url_char Subsequent calls will use the object that the first call created Because url_ch is a const string, its value will not change once we have initialized it The not_url_char function also uses the isalnum function, which the <cctype> header defines This function tests whether its argument is an alphanumeric character (a letter or a digit) Finally, find is another algorithm that we haven't used yet It is similar to find_if, except that instead of calling a predicate, it looks for the specific value given as its third argument As with find_if, if the value that we want is present, the function returns an iterator denoting the first occurrence of the value in the given sequence If the value is not found, then find returns its second argument With this information in hand, we can now understand the not_url_char function Because we negate the value of the entire expression before we return it, not_url_char will yield false if c is a letter, a digit, or any of the characters in
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