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iterator Therefore, after the call to search, either i denotes (one past) the end of the input string, or it denotes a : that is followed by // If we found a separator, the next task is to get the letters (if any) that make up the protocol-name We first check whether the separator is at the beginning or end of the input If the separator is in either of those places, we know that we don't have a URL, because a URL has at least one character on each side of its separator Otherwise, we need to try to position the iterator beg The inner while loop moves beg backward through the input until it hits either a nonalphabetic character or the beginning of the string It uses two new ideas: The first is the notion that if a container supports indexing, so do its iterators In other words, beg[-1] is the character at the position immediately before the one that beg denotes We can think of beg[-l] as an abbreviation for *(beg - 1) We'll learn more about such iterators in 826/148 The second new idea is the isalpha function, defined in <cctype>, which tests whether its argument is a letter If we were able to advance the iterator over as much as a single character, we assume that we've found a protocol-name Before returning beg, we still have to check that there's at least one valid character following the separator This test is more complicated We know that there is at least one more character in the input, because we're inside the body of an if that compares the value of i + sepsize() with e We can access the first such character as i[sepsize()], which is an abbreviation for *(i + sepsize()) We test whether that character can appear in a URL by passing the character to not_url_char This function returns true if the character is not valid, so we negate the return to check whether the character is valid If the separator is not part of a URL, then the function advances i past the separator and keeps looking This code uses the decrement operator, which we mentioned in the operator table in 27/32, but which we have not previously used It works like the increment operator, but it decrements its operand instead As with the increment operator, it comes in prefix and postfix versions The prefix version, which we use here, decrements its operand and returns the new value
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As we saw in 5, many container operations apply to more than one type of container For example, vector, string, and list allow us to insert elements by calling insert and remove elements by calling erase These operations have the same interface for each type that supports them For that matter, many container operations also apply to the string class Every container as well as the string class provides companion iterator types, which let us navigate through a container and examine its elements Again, the library ensures that every iterator that supplies an operation does so through the same interface For example, we can use the ++ operator to advance any type of iterator from one element to the next; we can use the * operator to access the element associated with any type of iterator; and so on In this chapter, we'll see how the library exploits these common interfaces to provide a collection of standard algorithms By using these algorithms, we can avoid writing (and rewriting) the same code over and over again More important, we can write programs that are smaller and simpler than we would write otherwise sometimes astonishingly so Like containers and iterators, algorithms also use consistent interface conventions This consistency lets us learn a few of the algorithms and then apply that knowledge to others as the need arises In this chapter, we'll use several of the library algorithms to solve problems related to processing strings and student grades Along the way, we'll cover most of the core concepts in the algorithm library Unless we say otherwise, the <algorithm> header defines all the algorithms that we introduce in this chapter
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