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42 Organizing data
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Computing one student's grades may be useful to that student, but the computation is simple enough that a pocket calculator could handle it almost as well as our program On the other hand, if we are teaching a course, we will want to compute grades for a class full of students Let's revise our program to make it useful for an instructor Instead of interactively reporting one student's grade, we'll assume that we are given a file that contains many students' names and grades Each name is followed by a midterm grade and a final exam grade, and then by one or more homework assignment grades Such a file might look like
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Our program should calculate each student's overall grade using medians: The median homework grade counts 40%; the final, 40%; and the midterm, 20% For this input, the output would be
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In the output, we want the report to be organized alphabetically by student, and we want the final grades to line up vertically so that they are easier to read These requirements imply that we'll need a place to store the records for all the students, so that we can alphabetize them We'll also need to find the length of the longest name, so that we know how many spaces to put between each name and its corresponding grade Assuming that we have a place to store the data about a single student, we can use a vector to hold all the student data Once the vector contains data for all the students, we can sort it, and then calculate and write each student's grades We'll start by creating a data structure to hold the student data, and by writing some auxiliary functions to read and process those data After we have developed these abstractions, we'll use them to solve the overall problem
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421 Keeping all of a student's data together
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We know that we need to read each student's data and then arrange the students in alphabetical order When we do so, we want to keep the students' names and grades together Therefore, we need a way to store in one place all the information that pertains to one student That place should be a data structure that holds the student's name, midterm and final exam grades, and all the homework grades In C++, we define such a data structure as follows:
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struct Student_info { string name; double midterm, final; vector<double> homework; }; // note the semicolon it's required
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This struct definition says that Student_info is a type, which has four data members Because Student_info is a type, we can define objects of that type, each of which will contain an instance of these four data members The first member, named name, is of type string; the second and third are doubles named midterm and final; and the last is a vector of doubles named homework
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Each object of Student_info type holds information about one student Because Student_info is a type, we can use a vector<Student_info> object to hold information about an arbitrary number of students, just as we used a vector<double> object to hold an arbitrary number of homework grades
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422 Managing the student records
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If we break our problem into manageable components, we'll see that there are three separable steps, which we can represent by separate functions: We need to read data into a Student_info object, we need to generate the overall grade for a Student_info object, and we need to be able to sort a vector of Student_info objects The function that reads one of our records is a lot like the read_hw function that we wrote in 413/57 In fact, we can use that function to read the homework grades In addition, we'll need to read the student's name and exam grades:
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istream& read(istream& is, Student_info& s) { // read and store the student's name and midterm and final exam grades is >> sname >> smidterm >> sfinal; read_hw(is, shomework); return is; } // read and store all the student's homework grades
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There is no ambiguity in naming this function read, because the type of its second parameter will tell us what we're reading Overloading will distinguish it from any other function called read that might read into another kind of structure Like read_hw, this function takes two references: one to the istream from which to read, and another to the object in which to store what it reads When we use the parameter s inside the function, we will affect the state of the argument that we were passed This function works by reading values into the name, midterm, and final members of the object s, and then calling read_hw to read the homework grades We might reach end-of-file, or encounter input failure, at any point during this process If so, the subsequent input attempts will do nothing, and when we return, is will be in the appropriate error state Note that this behavior relies on the fact that the read_hw function ( 413/57) carefully leaves the input stream in an error state if it was already in such a state when we called read_hw The other function that we need computes a final grade for a Student_info object We already solved most of this problem when we defined the grade function in 412/54 We will continue that work just a little further by overloading the grade function with a version that determines the overall grade for a Student_info object:
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double grade(const Student_info& s) { return grade(smidterm, sfinal, shomework); }
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This function operates on an object of type Student_info, and returns a double that represents the overall grade Note that the parameter has type const Student_info&, rather than just plain Student_info, so that when we call it, we do not incur the overhead of copying an entire Student_info object Note also that this function does not protect against an exception being thrown by the grade function that it calls The reason is that there isn't anything that our grade function can do to handle the exception beyond what the grade function that it calls has already done Because our grade function doesn't catch the exception, any exception that occurs will be passed back to our caller, which presumably will be in a better position than we are to decide what to do about students who did no homework Our last task, before writing the whole program, is to decide how we will sort our vector of Student_info objects In
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