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Finally, we define three operator functions The first of these, operator bool() lets users test the value of a Handle in a condition The operation returns true if the Handle is bound to an object, and false otherwise The other two define operator* and operator->, which give access to the object bound to the Handle:
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template <class T> T& Handle<T>::operator*() const { if (p) return *p; throw runtime_error("unbound Handle"); } template <class T> T* Handle<T>::operator->() const { if (p) return p; throw runtime_error("unbound Handle"); }
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Applying the built-in unary * operator to a pointer yields the object to which the pointer points Here we define our own *, so that * of a Handle object yields the value that results from applying the built-in * operator to the pointer member of that Handle object Given our student object, *student will yield the result of applying * to studentp (assuming we could access the p member) In other words, the result of *student will be a reference to the Grad object that we created when we initialized student The -> operator is a bit more complicated Superficially, -> looks like a binary operator, but in fact it behaves differently from ordinary binary operators Like the scope or dot operators, the -> operator is used to access a member whose name appears in its right operand from an object named by its left operand Because names are not expressions, we have no direct access to the name that our user requested Instead, the language requires that we define -> to return a value that can be treated as a pointer When we define operator->, we are saying that if x is a value of type that defines operator-> then
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In this case, operator-> returns the pointer that its object holds So for student,
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which, because of the way we defined operator->, is equivalent to
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(ignoring the fact that protection would not ordinarily allow us to access studentp directly) Thus, the -> operator has the effect of forwarding calls made through a Handle object to the underlying pointer that is a member of the Handle object One of our objectives was for Handle to preserve the polymorphic behavior associated with built-in pointers Having seen the definitions of operator* and operator->, we can see that we have reached our goal These operations yield either a reference or a pointer, through which we obtain dynamic binding For example, if we execute student->grade() , we're calling grade through the p pointer inside student The particular version of grade that is run depends on the type of the object to which p points Assuming that student still points to the Grad object with which it was initialized, this call would be to Grad::grade Similarly, because operator* yields a reference, if we evaluate (*student)grade(), then we are calling grade through a reference, and so the implementation will decide which particular function to call at run time
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1412 Using a generic handle
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We could use Handles to rewrite the pointer-based grading program from 1331/241:
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int main() { vector< Handle<Core> > students; Handle<Core> record; char ch; string::size_type maxlen = 0;
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// read and store the data while (cin >> ch) { if (ch == 'U') record = new Core; // allocate a Core object else record = new Grad; // allocate a Grad object record->read(cin); // Handle<T>::->, then virtual call to read maxlen = max(maxlen, record->name()size()); // Handle<T>::-> studentspush_back(record); } // compare must be rewritten to work on const Handle<Core>& sort(studentsbegin(), studentsend(), compare_Core_handles); // write the names and grades for (vector< Handle<Core> >::size_type i = 0; i != studentssize(); ++i) { // students[i] is a Handle, which we dereference to call the functions cout << students[i]->name() << string(maxlen + 1 - students[i]->namesize(), ' '); try { double final_grade = students[i]->grade(); streamsize prec = coutprecision(); cout << setprecision(3) << final_grade << setprecision(prec) << endl; } catch (domain_error e) { cout << ewhat() << endl; } // no delete statement } return 0; }
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