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the same access rights as a member By making the input operator a friend, we can allow it, along with our member functions, to access the private members of class Str:
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class Str { friend std::istream& operator>>(std::istream&, Str&); // as before };
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We've added a friend declaration to class Str This declaration says that the version of operator>> that takes an istream& and a Str& may access the private members of Str Once we have added this declaration to Str, our input operator will compile A friend declaration may appear at any point in the class definition: It makes no difference whether it follows a private or public label Because a friend function has special access privileges, it is part of the interface to the class Therefore, it makes sense to group friend declarations at the beginning of the class definition, near the public interface for the class
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1233 Other binary operators
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What remains of our work on the Str class is to implement the + operator Before we can do so, we must make several decisions: Should the operator be a member What are its operands' types What type should it return As we shall see, these questions turn out to have subtle implications For now, let's make some initial guesses about the answers First, we know that we want to be able to concatenate values that are of type Str Second, we can observe that concatenation does not change the value of either operand These facts suggest that there is no particular reason to decide to make the operator a member function Finally, we know that we want to be able to chain several concatenations into a single expression in order to allow expressions such as
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s1 + s2 + s3
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where s1, s2, and s3 all have type Str This usage suggests that the operator should return a Str These decisions imply that we should implement concatenation as a nonmember:
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Str operator+(const Str&, const Str&);
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Before we launch into implementation, a bit of thought might suggest that if we offer operator+, we might want to provide our users with operator+= as well That is, we'd like to let our users assign to s the value obtained by concatenating s and s1 in either of these forms:
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s = s + s1; s += s1;
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It turns out that the most convenient way to implement operator+ is to implement operator+= first Unlike the simple concatenation operator, the compound version changes its left operand, so we make it a member of the Str class After adding definitions for the new concatenation operations, our final Str class looks like this:
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class Str { // input operator implemented in 1232/216 friend std::istream& operator>>(std::istream&, Str&); public: Str& operator+=(const Str& s) { std::copy(sdatabegin(), sdataend(),
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This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot std::back_inserter(data)); return *this; } // as before typedef Vec<char>::size_type size_type; Str() { } Str(size_type n, char c): data(n, c) { } Str(const char* cp) { std::copy(cp, cp + std::strlen(cp), std::back_inserter(data)); } template<class In> Str(In i, In j) { std::copy(i, j, std::back_inserter(data)); } char& operator[](size_type i) { return data[i]; } const char& operator[](size_type i) const { return data[i]; } size_type size() const { return datasize(); } private: Vec<char> data; }; // output operator implemented in 123:2/216 std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream&, const Str&); Str operator+(const Str&, const Str&);
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Because we use a Vec for our underlying storage, implementing operator+= is trivial: We call copy to append a copy of the right operand to the Vec that is the left operand As usual for assignment, we return a reference to the left object as our result Now we can implement operator+ in terms of operator+=:
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Str operator+(const Str& s, const Str& t) { Str r = s; r += t; return r; }
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Recall that concatenation is a nonmember function that will create a new Str We create this new Str by initializing a local variable named r to be a copy of s That initialization uses the Str copy constructor Next, we invoke the += operator on r to concatenate t, and then we return r (again through an implicit call to the copy constructor) as the result
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