This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot in Software

Creating Quick Response Code in Software This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot
This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot
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typed storage, we mean that it will be used to hold values of type T, and that we will use pointers of type T* to address it By uninitialized storage, we mean that the memory is raw storage, and no objects have yet been constructed in it The deallocate member frees this uninitialized storage It takes a pointer to storage that was allocated by allocate, and a size that indicates how many elements were allocated The construct and destroy members construct or destroy a single object in this uninitialized space We call construct, passing it a pointer into space that was allocated by allocate, and a value to copy into that space The destroy function runs the destructor for T on the element indicated by its argument The two companion functions that we need are named uninitialized_copy and uninitialized_fill These functions initialize elements in space that is allocated by allocate The uninitialized_fill function fills this uninitialized space with the specified value When the function completes, each of the elements in the range specified by the first two arguments will be a newly constructed copy of the value specified in the third argument The uninitialized_copy function operates like the library copy function, in that it copies values from a sequence specified by its first two arguments into a target sequence denoted by its third argument Like uninitialized_fill, it assumes that the target range contains raw storage, rather than elements that already hold values, and it constructs new objects in that memory As with any template, the actual type bound to T will be instantiated at compile time This instantiation will generate an appropriate allocator class for each type that uses the class In order to obtain an allocator of the right type, we'll add to our Vec<T> class an allocator<T> member that will know how to allocate objects of type T By adding this member, and using its associated library functions, we can provide the same kind of efficient, flexible memory management as the standard vector class provides
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1151 The final Vec class
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Our complete Vec class, including declarations but not definitions for the memory management functions, now looks like
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template <class T> class Vec { public: typedef T* iterator; typedef const T* const_iterator; typedef size_t size_type; typedef T value_type; Vec() { create(); } explicit Vec(size_type n, const T& t = T()) { create(n, t); } Vec(const Vec& v) { create(vbegin(), vend()); } Vec& operator=(const Vec&); // as defined in 1132/196 ~Vec() { uncreate(); } T& operator[](size_type i) { return data[i]; } const T& operator[](size_type i) const { return data[i]; } void push_back(const T& t) { if (avail == limit) grow(); unchecked_append(t); } size_type size() const { return avail - data; } iterator begin() { return data; } const_iterator begin() const { return data; } iterator end() { return avail; } const_iterator end() const { return avail; } private: iterator data; // first element in the Vec iterator avail; // (one past) the last element in the Vec
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This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot iterator limit; // (one past) the allocated memory // facilities for memory allocation allocator<T> alloc; // object to handle memory allocation // allocate and initialize the underlying array void create() ; void create(size_type, const T&); void create(const_iterator, const_iterator); // destroy the elements in the array and free the memory void uncreate(); // support functions for push_back void grow(); void unchecked_append(const T&); };
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All that remains is to implement the private members that handle memory allocation As we write these members, our program will be easier to understand if we remember that whenever we have a valid Vec object, four things are always true: 1 data points at our initial data element, if we have any, and is zero otherwise 2 data <= avail <= limit 3 Elements have been constructed in the range [data, avail) 4 Elements have not been constructed in the range [avail, limit) We shall call these conditions the class invariant Much as we did with loop invariants in 232/20, we intend to establish the class invariant as soon as we construct an object of that class If we do so, and we ensure that none of our member functions falsifies the class invariant, we can be assured that the invariant will always be true Note that none of the public members is capable of falsifying the invariant, because the only way to do so would be to change the value of data, avail, or limit, and none of those member functions does so We shall begin by looking at the various create functions, which are responsible for allocating memory, initializing elements in that memory, and setting the pointers appropriately In each case, we initialize whatever memory is allocated and so, after running create, the pointers limit and avail are always equal: The last constructed element is the same as the last allocated element You should verify for yourself that the class invariant is true after we have executed any of the following functions:
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template <class T> void Vec<T>::create() { data = avail = limit = 0; } template <class T> void Vec<T>::create(size_type n, const T& val) { data = allocallocate(n); limit = avail = data + n; uninitialized_fill(data, limit, val); } template <class T> void Vec<T>::create(const_iterator i, const_iterator j) { data = allocallocate(j - i); limit = avail = uninitialized_copy(i, j, data); }
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