Indexing in Software

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1015 Indexing
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We said in 101/169 that pointers are random-access iterators for arrays Therefore, like all random-access iterators, they support indexing Specifically, if p points to the mth element of an array, p[n] is the m+nth element of the array not the address of the element, but the element itself Recall from 1013/174 that the name of an array is the address of the initial element of the array This fact, together with the definition of p[n], implies that if a is an array, a[n] is the nth element of the array More formally, if p is a pointer and n is an integer, then p[n] is equivalent to *(p + n) In most languages, the behavior of indexing is fundamental and obvious In C++, this behavior is not a direct property of arrays Rather, it is a corollary to the properties of array names and pointers, and the fact that pointers supply the operations defined for random-access iterators
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1016 Array initialization
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Arrays have an important property that the standard-library containers do not share: There is a convenient syntax for giving an initial value to each element of an array Moreover, using this syntax often lets us avoid having to state the size of the array explicitly For example, if we were writing a program that deals with dates, we might like to know how many days are in each month One way to do so would be the following:
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const int month_lengths[] = { 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 // we will deal elsewhere with leap years
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Here, we have given an initial value to each element that corresponds to the length of a month, with January being month 0 and December being month 11 Now, we can use month_lengths[i] to refer to the length of month i Note that we did not say explicitly how many elements the month_lengths array has Because we initialized it explicitly, the compiler will count elements for us a task to which it is much better suited than we
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102 String literals revisited
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We have finally learned enough to understand the true meaning of string literals: A string literal is really an array of const char with one more element than the number of characters in the literal That extra character is a null character (ie, '\0') that the compiler automatically appends to the rest of the characters In other words, if we define
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const char hello[] = { 'H', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', '\0' };
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then the variable hello has exactly the same meaning as the string literal "Hello", except, of course, that the variable and the literal are two distinct objects and, therefore, have different addresses The reason that the compiler inserts the null character is to allow the programmer to locate the end of the literal given only the address of its initial character The null character acts as an end marker, so that the programmer can know where the string ends There is a library function in <cstring> called strlen, which tells us how many characters are in a string literal or other null-terminated array of characters, not counting the null at the end The strlen function might be implemented as follows:
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// Example implementation of standard-library function size_t strlen(const char* p) { size_t size = 0; while (*p++ != '\0') ++size; return size; }
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Recall from 1013/174 that size_t is an unsigned integral type that is appropriate to contain the size of any array, which makes it the appropriate type for size The strlen function counts characters in the array denoted by p up to but not including the null Because the variable hello has the same meaning as the string literal "Hello",
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string s(hello);
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will define a string variable named s that contains a copy of the characters stored in hello, just as
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string s("Hello");
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defines a string variable named s that contains a copy of the characters in "Hello" Moreover, because we can construct a string from two iterators, we can also write
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string s(hello, hello + strlen(hello));
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Here, using the name of the array hello yields a pointer to the initial character of the hello array, and hello + strlen(hello) is a pointer to the '\0' that is at the end of the array which is also one character past the o of hello Because pointers are iterators, we can construct a string from two pointers, similar to what we did in 611/103, where we created a new string from two iterators In both cases, the first iterator refers to the initial character of the sequence that we wish to use to initialize the string that we are constructing, and the second iterator refers to one past the last character
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