Data Design in .NET

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for the application in the earlier phases of the design maps to one or more tables The Purchase Tracker application has a Customer table, a Product table, and a Purchase table Each row in the table represents a record, which is a set of data for a particular object For example, the Customer table may have 200 records, each containing the data for one customer Each column in the table represents a eld, which is a particular data element For example, a Customer table has LastName, FirstName, Address, City, State, Zip, and Phone elds associated with it You may recognize these as the properties de ned for the Customer class If a property needs to be retained for the business object, it is often de ned as a eld in a table
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Designing a Relational Database
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The rst step in designing a relational database is to identify the entities required by the application and the data associated with those entities An entity is an object that has associated data, such as customers and products Using object-oriented techniques and the GUIDS Methodology, you ve already identi ed the entities (objects) and their data (properties) So you have completed the rst step The next steps of designing a relational database involve organizing the data as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 De ne the tables De ne the elds for each table De ne the primary key for each table Normalize the data Optionally, build a data model Tune for performance
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2 DESIGNING SOFTWARE
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Each of these steps is described in the following sections
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Defining the Tables
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Start by de ning a table for each of the application s objects that have data to be stored in a database Although this often doesn t give you every table you need, it does provide an excellent starting point For example, the Purchase Tracker application has a Customer, Product, and Purchase table
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Add any other tables needed by the implementation For example, you could add log tables to log changes to the data or login tables to track every login to the application Document the list of tables in a data design document Many developers use Microsoft Excel for this, but you could use Microsoft Word or any other documentation tool
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Defining the Fields
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For each table, de ne the elds appropriate for that table A good starting point is the set of properties de ned for the associated object during the earlier phases of the design Any object property that must be retained has a eld in one of the tables Add any other elds needed for the implementation For example, you could add LastUpdateDate and LastUpdateUser to each table to track the most recent change to a record Document the list of elds in the data design document
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Defining the Primary Keys
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In addition to the elds required for a table, de ne a primary key eld A primary key is a unique ID assigned to each record in a table Use the primary key to uniquely identify each record You can also use the primary key as a eld in another table to connect related data in that table to this record When you include the primary key in another table, the eld is called a foreign key For example, each record in the Customer table has a unique CustomerID assigned as the key Each Purchase record has a unique PurchaseID assigned as the key Each Purchase record also includes a CustomerID foreign key eld to associate the purchase with a particular customer The CustomerID in the Purchase table can be used to nd all purchases for a particular customer By convention, the ID eld is named with the table name and suf xed with ID For the Purchase Tracker application, the Customer table has a CustomerID, the Product table has a ProductID, and the Purchase table has a PurchaseID as the unique primary key Ensure that the de ned keys are meaningless That is, don t use an existing eld of the table for a key For example, the customer s name should not be the primary key If the name were used as the key, it would take up more space than a numeric key, and it would run the risk of needing correction If there were 30 different purchases for Jessica Jones, and
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