SNMP Network Management in Java

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SNMP Network Management
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Controlled execution of user scripts and shell commands. Process management.
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The full details of cfengine are described in ref. [30]. Because cfengine runs locally as a host process, and can be started any number of times without harming a host, it can be combined with other host control mechanisms. Complex commercial management products like Tivoli and OpenView, to name two examples, rely on scripts at the end host for most of their operations. Such scripts could easily be exchanged with cfengine programs to simplify and improve convergence properties of hosts. The scalability of the cfengine model means that it can be deployed on a single host or on networks with thousands of hosts.
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The ability to read information about the performance of network hardware via the network itself is an attractive idea. Suppose we could look at a router on the second floor of a building half a mile away and immediately see the load statistics, or number of rejected packets it has seen; or perhaps the status of all printers on a subnet. That would be useful diagnostic information. Similar information could be obtained about software systems on any host. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol designed to do just this. SNMP was spawned in 1987 as a Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol, but was quickly extended and became a standard for network monitoring. SNMP was designed to be small and simple enough to be able to run on even minor pieces of network technology like bridges and printers. It now exists in two versions: version 1 and version 2. SNMP supports two operations: get and put. It can therefore read and modify the data stored on a device. SNMP access is mediated by a server process on each hardware node, which normally communicates by UDP/IP on ports l6l and 162. Modern operating systems often run SNMP daemons or services which advertise their status to an SNMP capable manager. The services are protected by a rather weak password which is called the community string. SNMP information is stored in data structures called MIBs (Management Information Bases). The MIBs are catalogued in RFC 1213 and give hardware and software profiles. They are dynamically updated. An SNMP request specifies the information it wants to read/ write by giving the name of a MIB. In SNMP v2 there are standard MIBs for address translation tables, TCP/IP statistics and so on. There are 27 default parameters that can be altered by SNMP: system name, location and human contact; interface state (up/down), hardware and IP address, IP state (forwarding gateway/not) IP TTL, IP next HOP address, IP route age and mask, TCP state, neighbour state, SNMP trap enabling. Operating systems define their own MIBs for system performance data. Some commercial network management systems like Hewlett Packard's OpenView work by reading and writing MIBs using SNMP client-server technology. Most Unix variants now support SNMP. NT also supports for SNMP; its MIBs can be used to collect information from NT systems, such as the names of users who are logged on. This can be considered a security risk. Novell Netware 5 has SNMP support for network monitoring. SNMP seems to be increasing in popularity, but like any public information database, it can be abused by network attackers. SNMP has very weak security; it is a prime target for abuse.
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Models of Network Administration
Some sites choose to disable SNMP services altogether on hosts, using it only for monitoring network transport hardware. All sites should filter SNMP packets to and from external networks to avoid illegal access of these services from intruders.
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Combining radically different operating systems in a network environment is a challenge both to users and administrators. Each operating system services a specific function well, and if we are to allow users to move from operating system to operating system, with access to their personal data, we need to balance the convenience of availability with the caution of differentiation. It ought to be clear to users where they are, and what system they are using, to avoid unfortunate mistakes. Combining different Unix-like systems is challenge enough, but adding Windows hosts or Macintosh technology to a primarily Unix based network, or vice versa, requires careful planning [28]. Integrating radically different network technologies is not worth the effort unless there is some particular need. It is always possible to move data between two hosts using the universally supported FTP protocol. But do we need to have open file sharing or software compatibility 6.7.1 File System Sharing
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Sharing of file systems between different operating systems can be useful in a variety of circumstances. File-servers, which host and share users' files, need to be fast, stable and capable machines. Workstations for end-users, on the other hand, are chosen for quite different reasons. They might be chosen to run some particular software, or on economic grounds, or perhaps for user-friendliness. The Macintosh has always been a favourite workstation for multimedia applications. It is often the preferred platform for music and graphical applications. Windows operating systems are cheap and have a wide and successful software base. There are other reasons for wanting to keep an inhomogeneous network. An organization might need a mainframe or vector processor for intensive computation, whose disks need to be available to workstations for collecting data. There might be legacy systems waiting to be replaced with new machinery, which we have to accommodate in order to run old software, or development groups supporting software across multiple platforms. There is a dozen reasons for integration. What about solutions Most solutions to the file sharing problem are software based. Client and server software is available for implementing network sharing protocols across platform boundaries. For example, client software for the Unix NFS file system has been implemented for both Windows (PCNFS) and Macintosh System 7/8. This enables Windows and Macintosh workstations to use Unix-like hosts as file and printer servers, in much the same way as NT servers or Novell Netware servers provide those services. These services are adequate for insecure operating systems, since there is no need to map file permissions across foreign file systems. NT is more of a problem, however. NT ACLs cannot be represented in a simple fashion on a Unix file system. The converse, that of making Unix files available to PCs, has the reverse problem. While NT is capable of representing Unix file permissions, Windows 9x and the Macintosh are not.
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