Immunity and Convergence in Java

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Immunity and Convergence
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The immunity model is about self-sufficient maintenance and is of central importance to all scalable approaches to network management, since it is the only model which scales trivially with the number of networked hosts. The idea behind immunity is to automate host maintenance in such a way as to give each host responsibility for its own configuration. A level of automation is introduced to every host, in such as way as to bring each host into an ideal state. What we mean by an ideal state is not fixed: it depends upon local system policy, but the central idea of the immunity model is to keep hosts as close to their ideal state as possible. The immunity model has its origins in the work of John von Neumann, the architect of modern computer systems. He was the first person to recognize the analogy between living organisms and computers [271, 272], and clearly understood the conceptual implications of computing machines which could repair and maintain themselves, as early as 1948. All collective systems (including all biological phenomena) are moderated and stabilized by a cooperative principle of feedback regulation. This regulating principle is sometimes called the Prey-Predator scenario, because it is about competition between different parts of a system. When one part of the system starts to grow out of control, it tends to favour the production of an antidote which keeps that part in check. Similarly, the antidote cannot exist without the original system, so it cannot go so far as to destroy the original system, since it destroys itself in the process. A balance is therefore found between the original part of the system and its antidote. The classical example of a Prey-Predator model is that of populations
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of foxes and rabbits. If the number of rabbits increases suddenly, then foxes feed well and grow in numbers, eating more rabbits, thus stabilizing the numbers. If rabbits grow scarce, then foxes die and thus an equilibrium is maintained. Another example of this type of behaviour is to be found in the body's own repair and maintenance systems. The name 'immunity' is borrowed from the idea that systems of biological complexity are able to repair themselves, in such a way as to maintain an equilibrium called health. The relative immunity of, for instance, the human body to damage and disease is due to a continual equilibrium between death, cleanup and renewal. Immunity from disease is usually attributed to an immune system, which is comprised of cells which fight invading organisms, though it has become clear over the years that the phenomenon of immunity is a function of many cooperating systems throughout the entire human organism, and that disease does not distinguish between self and non-self(body and invader), as was previously thought. In the immunity model, we apply this principle to the problem of system maintenance. Automatic systems maintenance has been an exercise in tool-building for many years. The practice of automating basic maintenance procedures has been commonplace in the Unix world (see section 7.4.1). Following von Neumann's insights, the first theoretical work on this topic, addressing the need for convergence, appears to be by Burgess [32, 37]. The biological analogy between computers and human immune systems has been used to inspire models for the detection of viruses, principally in insecure operating systems. This was first discussed in 1994 by Kephart of IBM [147], and later expanded upon by Forrest et al [91, 249, 94, 92, 129, 128, 274, 127, 69, 93, 198, 68]. The analogy between system administration and immunology was discussed independently by Burgess [34, 35] in the wider context of general system maintenance. References [35, 331 also discuss how computer systems can be thought of as statistical mechanical systems, drawing on a wide body of knowledge from theoretical physics. Interestingly, refs. [35] and [249], which appeared slightly earlier, point out many of the same ideas independently, both speculating freely on the lessons learned from human immunology, though the latter authors do not seem to appreciate the wider validity of their work to system maintenance. The idea of immunity requires a notion of convergence. Convergence means that maintenance work (the counter force or antidote) tends to bring a host to a state of equilibrium, i.e. a stable state, which is the state we would actually like the system to be in. The more maintenance which is performed, the closer we approach the ideal state of the system. When the idea state is reached, maintenance work stops, or at least has no further effect. The reason for calling this the immunity model is that this is precisely the way that biological maintenance works. As long as there is damage or the system is threatened, a counter force is mobilized, followed by a garbage collection and a repair team. There is a direct analogy between medicine and computer maintenance. Computer maintenance is just somewhat simpler.
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