Physical Network in Java

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Physical Network
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Different vendors have invested in different networking technologies, with different Media Access Control (MAC) specifications. Most Unix systems use some form of Ethernet interface. IBM systems have employed Token Ring networking technology very successfully for their mainframes and AS/400 systems; they now also support Ethernet on their RS/6000 systems. Most manufacturers now provide solutions for both technologies, though Ethernet is undoubtedly popular for local area networks. Bus/Ethernet approach: Ethernet technology was developed by Xerox, Intel and DEC in 1976, at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) [76]. In the Ethernet bus approach, every host is connected to a common cable or bus. Only one host can be using a given network cable at a given instant. It is like a conference telephone call: what goes out onto a network reaches all hosts on that network (more or less) simultaneously, so everyone has to share the line by waiting for a suitable moment to say something. We should not think of data transmission over the network as being a little stream of bytes rollin' down the track one behind the other, from origin to destination, like Thomas the Tank Engine. Every bit, every 1 or 0, is a signal (a voltage or light pulse) on a cable which fills the entire cable at a good fraction of the speed of light. It's like sending Morse code with a lighthouse. Everyone sees the signal, but only the recipient bothers to read it. Ethernet is defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard documents. An Ethernet network is available to any host at any time, provided the line isn't busy. This is called CSMA/CD, or Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect. A collision occurs when two hosts attempt to send signals simultaneously. CSMA/CD means that if a card has something to send, it will listen until no other card is transmitting, then start transmitting and listen if no other card starts transmitting at the very same time. If another card began transmitting it will stop, wait for a random interval and try again. The original Ethernet, with a capacity of 10 Mbits per second, could carry packets of 1518 bytes. Today, Ethernet is progressing in leaps and bounds. Switched Ethernet running on twisted pair cables can deliver up to 100 Mbits/sec (100BaseT, fast Ethernet). The main limitation of Ethernet networks is the presence of collisions. When many hosts are talking, performance degrades quickly due to time wasted by hosts waiting to get a word in. To avoid collisions, packet sizes are limited. With a large number of small packets, it is easier to share the time between more hosts. Ethernet interfaces are assigned a unique MAC address when they are built. The initial numbers of the address identify each manufacturer uniquely. Full-duplex connections at 100 Mbits are possible with fast Ethernet on dedicated cables. This disables the CSMA/CD protocol. Token ring/FDDI approach: in the token ring approach [214], hosts are coupled to hubs or nodes, each of which has two network interfaces, and the hosts are connected in a unidirectional ring. The token ting is described in IEEE 802.5. The token ring is a deterministic protocol; if Ethernet embraces chaos, then the token ring demands order. No matter when a host wishes to transmit, it must wait for a passing token, in a specified time-slot. If a signal (token) arrives, a host can append something to the signal. If nothing is appended, the token is passed on to the next host, which has the opportunity to do the same. Similarly, if the signal arriving at one of the interfaces is for the host itself, then it is read. If it is not intended for the host itself, the signal is forwarded to the next host where the same applies. A common token ring based interface in use today is the optical FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface). Token rings can pass 16 Mbits/sec, with packet
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