File Systems in Java

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File Systems
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user::rwuserrrobot: #effective: user:ds:rw- fteffective: group:: effective: group:iu:r-#effective: mask: other: Notice that this is accomplished by saying that the group has read permission whilst the specific user should have no permissions. 2.3.2 NT File Model
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The NT operating system supports a variety of legacy file systems for backward compatibility with DOS and Windows 9x. These older file systems are insecure, in the sense that they have no mechanisms for restricting access to files. The file system NTFS was introduced with NT in order to solve this problem. The file system has gone through a number of revisions, and no doubt will go through many more before it reaches constancy. NTFS, like the Unix file system, is a hierarchical file system with files and directories. Each file or directory has an owner, but no group membership. Files do not have a set of default permission bits, as does Unix; instead, they all have full-blooded ACLs, which assign a set of permission bits to a specific user. NTFS ACLs are similar to other access control list models, in file systems such as the AFS and DCE/DFS. They have all of the flexibility and all of the confusions which accompany ACLs, such as inheritance of attributes from parent directories and creation masks. The NTFS file system is indexed by a master file table, which serves an analogous function to Unix's inodes, though the details are somewhat different.
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File System Layout
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Drawing on its DOS legacy, NT treats different disk partitions as independent floppy disks, labelled by a letter of the alphabet:
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A: B: C: D: ...
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For historical reasons, drive A: is normally the diskette station, while drive C : is the primary hard disk partition. Other drive names are assigned at random, but often H: is reserved for partitions containing users' home directories. Unlike Unix, different devices are not sewn seamlessly into a unified file tree, though this will probably change in a future release of NT. Originally, DOS chose to deviate from its Unix heritage by changing the sub-directory separator from / to \. Moreover, since each device is treated as a separate entity, there is a root directory on every disk partition:
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A: B: C: ...
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and one has a notion of current working drive, as well as current working directory. These distinctions often cause confusion amongst users who 'work with both Unix and NT. The layout of the NT file system has changed through the different versions, in an effort to improve the structure. This description relates to NT 4.0. The system root is usually stored in C : \WinNT, and is generally referred to by the system environment variable %SystemRoot%:
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The System Components
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C : \I386 This directory contains binary code and data for the NT operating system. This should normally be left alone. C : \ P r o g r am Files This is NT's official location for new software. Program packages which you buy should install themselves in subdirectories of this directory. More often than not, they choose their own locations, often with a distressing lack of discipline. C : \Temp Temporary scratch space, like Unix's /tmp. C: \WinNT This is the root directory for the NT system. This is mainly for operating system files, so you should not place new files under this directory yourself unless you really know what you are doing. Some software packages might install themselves here. C : \ W i n N T \ c o n f i g Configuration information for programs. These are generally binary files, so the contents of NT configuration files is not very interesting. C: \WinNT\system32 This is the so-called system root. This is where most system applications and data files are kept.
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File Extensions Whereas files can go by any name in Unix, Microsoft operating systems have always used the concept of file extensions to identify special file types. For example: fi1e. E XE f i 1 e . DO C file. JPG An executable program Word document Graphic file format
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Links and Shortcuts Like Unix, NT also has ways of aliasing files in the file system. NT has hard links, or duplicate entries in the master file table, allowing one to associate several names with a given file. This is not a pointer to a file, but an alternative entry point to the same file. Although the file system structure of NTFS is different from the Unix file system, the idea is the same. Hard links are created from the POSIX compatibility subsystem, using the traditional Unix command name In. As with Unix, hard links can only be made to files on the same disk partition. A short cut is a small file which contains the name of another file. It is normally used for aliasing scripts or programs. Unlike Unix's symbolic links, short cuts are not handled transparently by the operating system; they are actual files which can be opened with a text editor. They must be read and dealt with at the application level. Short cuts can be given any name, but they always have the file extension . LNK. This suffix is not visible in the graphical user interface. They are created from the graphical user interface by right-clicking on the item one wishes to obtain a pointer to. Unix compatibility packages like Cygwin32 use short cuts to emulate symbolic links. However, since short cuts work at the application level, what one package does with a short cut is not guaranteed to apply to other software, so the usefulness of short cuts is limited.
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