Attacks in Java

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Attacks
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Figure9.5
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IP spoofing. A third party host C assumes the role of host A
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resource which host Chas privileged access to. Another reason might be to attack host Cas part of a more elaborate attack. Usually it is not quite this simple, however, since the forgery is quickly detected. The TCP handshake is such that host A sends a packet to host Band then replies to the source address with a sequence number which has to match the next number of an agreed sequence. If another packet is not received with an agreed sequence number, the connection will be reset and abandoned. Indeed, if host Creceived the confirmation reply for a message which it never sent, it would send a reset signal back immediately, saying effectively 'I know nothing about this'. To prevent this from happening it is common to take out host C first by attacking it with some kind of Denial of Service method, or simply choosing an address which is not used by any host. This prevents it from sending a reset message. The advantage of choosing a real host C is that the blame for the attack is placed on host C.
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SYN Flooding
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IP spoofing can also be used as a denial of service attack. By choosing an address for host C which is not in use so that it cannot reply with a reset, host A can send SYN packets (new connections) on the same and other ports repeatedly. The RECV queue quickly fills up and cannot be emptied since the connections cannot be completed. Because the queues are filled the services are effectively cut off. These attacks could be prevented if routers were configured so as to disallow packets with forged source addresses.
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TCP Sequence Guessing
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This attack allows an attacker to make a TCP connection to a host by guessing the initial TCP sequence number used by the other end of the connection. This is a form of IP spoofing. The attack was first described in the references below. It was made famous by the break in into Tsutomo Shinomrua's computers which led to the arrest of Kevin Mitnick. This attack is used to impersonate other hosts for trusted access [185, 23, 252]. This approach can now be combatted by using random sequence numbers.
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Principles of Security
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IP/UDP Fragmentation (Teardrop)
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The Teardrop attack was responsible for the now famous twelve hour attack which 'bluescreened' thousands of NT machines all over the world. This attack uses the idea of datagram fragmentation. Fragmentation is something which happens as a datagram passes through a router from one network to another network where the transmission rate is lower. Large packets can be split up into smaller packets for more efficient network performance. In the Teardrop attack, the attacker forges two UDP datagrams which appear to be fragments of a larger packet, but with data offsets which overlap. When fragmentation occurs it is always the end host which reassembles the packets. To allocate memory for the data, the kernel calculates the difference between the end of the datagram and the offset at which the datagram fragment started. In a normal situation that would look like that in Figure 9.6. In a Teardrop attack the packets are forged so that they overlap like this: The assumption that the next fragment would follow on from the previous one leads to a negative number for the size of the fragment. As the kernel tries to allocate memory for this it calls malloc(size) where the size is now a negative number. The kernel panics and the system crashes on implementations which did not properly check the bounds. 9.9.7 ICMP Flooding (Smurf)
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ICMP flooding is another denial of service attack. The ICMP protocol is the part of TCP/IP which is used to transmit error messages and control information between hosts. Well known services like ping and echo use ICMP. Normally all hosts respond to ping and echo requests without question, since they are useful for debugging. In an ICMP flooding attack, the attacker sends a spoofed ICMP packet to the broadcast address of a large network. The source address of the packet is forged so that it appears to come from the host which the attacker wishes to attack. Every host on the large network receives the ping/echo request and replies to the same host simultaneously. The host is then flooded with requests. The requests consume all the system resources. 9.9.8 DNS Cache Poisoning
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This attack is an example of the exploitation of a trusted service in order to gain access to a foreign host. Again it uses a common theme, that of forging a network service request. This time, however, the idea is to ask a server to cache some information which is incorrect so that
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