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Middleware platform, typically with a virtual execution environment for platformindependent distributed processing. The computing platform serves as a general purpose platform for processing stateful protocols, e.g. routing, QoS signaling or connection management. The forwarding engine is in the data path of a network node and it connects the interface modules, e.g. by a switch matrix. This engine can be implemented as dedicated
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Figure 16.8 Programmable network element model.
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Figure 16.9 Mobile terminal architecture. hardware or as a kernel module of common operating systems. The forwarding engine is programmable for performance-critical tasks which are performed on a per-packet basis. The interface modules are medium speci c for different wireless or wired standards. They can be con gured or programmed to adapt to new physical layer protocols or for triggering events in higher layers.
There are different approaches to active networking in this architecture. Some approaches offer a virtual execution environment, e.g. a Java virtual machine, on the middleware layer. Some options also include native code in the computing platform, e.g. for exible signaling. Others employ programmable hardware for forwarding. A key ingredient in these approaches is interfaces to the lower layers and programmable lters for identifying the packets to be processed in the active networking environment. The terminal architecture is shown in Figure 16.9. It consists of:
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Middleware platform, typically with a limited virtual execution environment. Smart Card, e.g. USIM for UMTS, which includes subscriber identities and also a small, but highly secure execution environment. This can be used ideally for personal services like electronic wallet. Programmable hardware, which is designed for one or more radio standards. Native operating system which provides real-time support, needed for stacks and certain critical applications, e.g. multimedia codecs.
Compared with network elements, the SmartCard is a new, programmable component. Owing to resource limitations, the forwarding engine and computation platform just collapse to one operating system platform. Also, the middleware layers are typically quite restricted. Service deployment and control of recon gurations are complex since there is a split of responsibility between operator and manufacturer. For instance, the manufacturer has to provide or digitally sign appropriate low-level code for recon gurations. On the other hand, the operator is interested in controlling the con guration to t the user and network needs. There are a number of examples to show the importance of exible networking protocols and the need of dynamic cross layer interfaces in future mobile networks. As an example we show that hand-over can be optimized by information about the user context [37, 42, 43]
ACTIVE NETWORKS
Train
AP3 Road Access points with coverage area AP1 AP2
Terminal movement Movement
Figure 16.10 Context-aware hand-over prediction. as shown in Figure 16.10. In this scenario, the terminal moves into an area covered by both AP2 and AP3. The problem is to decide which access point (AP) to choose. State of the art are many algorithms based on signal strength analysis or on available radio resources. Even if one AP is slightly better regarding these local measurements, the decision may not be the best. For instance, if the terminal in Figure 16.10 is on the train, it is obviously better to hand over to AP3, even if AP2 is more reachable for a short period of time. In many cases, the hand-over can be optimized by knowledge of terminal movement and user preferences. For instance, if the terminal is in a car or train, its route may be constrained to certain areas. Also, the terminal pro le may contain the information that the terminal is built in a car. Alternatively, the movement pattern of a terminal may suggest that the user is in a train. A main problem is that hand-over decisions have to be executed fast. However, the terminal pro le and location information is often available on a central server in the core network. Retrieving this information may be too slow for hand-over decisions. Furthermore, the radio conditions during hand-over may be poor and hence limit such information exchange. The idea of the solution is to proactively deploy a context-aware decision algorithm onto the terminal which can be used to assist hand-over decisions. A typical example is the information about the current movement pattern, e.g. by knowledge of train or road routes. For implementation, different algorithms can be deployed by the network on the terminal, depending on the context information. This implementation needs a cross layer interface, which collects the context information from different layers and makes an optimized decision about deploying a decision algorithm.
16.5 COGNITIVE PACKET NETWORKS We now discuss packet switching networks in which intelligence is incorporated into the packets, rather than at the nodes or in the protocols. Networks which contain such packets are referred to as cognitive packet networks (CPN). Cognitive packets in CPN route themselves, and learn to avoid congestion and being lost or destroyed. Cognitive packets learn from their own observations about the network and from the experience of other packets. They rely