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16.3 EVOLUTION TO 4G WIRELESS NETWORKS Given the volume of investments in existing networks infrastructure, a possible way to 4G might be evolution rather than any revolution. By network evolution we mean any incremental change to a network that modi es or enhances existing functionality or adds new functionality. In the context of active networking, evolution should be able to occur at remote nodes while the network is operational with only minimal disruption to existing services. AN achieves evolution by changing the programs that operate the network. Thus the ways in which we can evolve the network are dictated by the programmability mechanisms that are available to make such changes. Active packets (AP) are perhaps the most radical AN technology for evolution and they are the only mechanism that, at a high-level, are speci c to AN. Such packets carry (or literally are) programs that execute as they pass through the nodes of network. A packet can perform management actions on the nodes, effect its own routing, or form the basis of larger protocols between distributed nodes, e.g. routing protocols. Such packets (ANTS [38], Smart Packets [39] and PLAN [40]) are like conventional packets, but with qualitatively more power and exibility. Active packet evolution does not require changes to the nodes of the network. Instead, it functions solely by the execution of APs utilizing standard services. The disadvantage of
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this approach is that taking advantage of new functionality requires the use of new packet programs. This means that at some level the applications using the functionality must be aware that the new functionality exists. This is the kind of evolution facilitated by pure AP systems, such as ANTS [38] and in essence it embodies the AN goal of application-level customization. The programmability mechanism that is broadly familiar outside the AN community is the plug-in extension. Plug-in extensions can be downloaded and dynamically linked into a node to add new node-level functionality. For this new functionality to be used, it must be callable from some prebuilt and known interface. For example, a packet program will have a standard way of calling node resident services. If it is possible to add a plug-in extension to the set of callable services (typically by extending the service name space) then such an extension plugs in to the service call interface. The programmability mechanism known as the update extensions may also be downloaded, but they go beyond plug-in extensions in that they can update or modify existing code and can do so even while the node remains operational. Thus, such extension can add to or modify a system s functionality even when there does not exist an interface for it to hook into. An example of AP evolution program written in a special-purpose language, PLAN (packet language for AN) [40], for mobility management protocol can be found in Song et al. [36]. Before a mobile node leaves its home network, it must identify the router that serves as its home agent. For simplicity, it is assumed that its default router serves this purpose. Once the node has attached itself to a new network and has a unique address, it sends an AP containing a control program to register itself to its home agent. When executed, this program simply adds the information to the home agent s soft-state keyed by the mobile node s home network address. Both the application aware and transparent versions share the same soft-state entries, allowing them to use the same control program and to co-exist. Figure 16.7 illustrates how we detect that a packet is at the home agent of a mobile host and how the packet is then tunneled to the unique address. The PLAN code for the packet
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