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This schema speci es the conditions which must exist if a key exchange should be performed securely: (1) secret keys may only be transferred over a con dentiality channel; (2) public keys must be transferred over authentication channels; (3) if the key is to be shared, the channel should provide both con dentiality and authentication since both users need to associate the key only with each other; (4) if the key is public or shared then the recipient must trust the sender, unless the sender is the originator; this is because the key must be correctly assigned to the originator; and (5) if the key is secret or shared, then the sender must trust the recipient not to reveal it, unless the recipient is the destination. More details on formal protocol presentation can be found in References [21 32].
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15.3 KEY MANAGEMENT Information protection mechanisms, discussed so far in this chapter, assume cryptographic keys to be distributed to the communicating parties prior to secure communications. The secure management of these keys is one of the most critical elements when integrating cryptographic functions into a system, since even the most elaborate security concept will be ineffective if the key management is weak. An automatic distribution of keys typically employs different types of messages. A transaction usually is initiated by requesting a key from some central facility (e.g. a key distribution center, KDC), or from the entity a key is to be exchanged with. Cryptographic service messages (CSMs) are exchanged between communicating parties for the transmission of keying material, or for authentication purposes. CSMs may contain keys, or other keying material, such as the distinguished names of entities, key-IDs, counters or random values. CSMs have to be protected depending on their contents and on the security requirements. Generic requirements include the following: (1) Data con dentiality should be provided while secret keys and possibly other data are being transmitted or stored. (2) Modi cation detection prevents the active threat of unauthorized modi cation of data items. In most environments, all cryptographic service messages have to be protected against modi cation. (3) Replay detection is to counter unauthorized duplication of data items. (4) Timeliness requires that the response to a challenge message is prompt and does not allow for playback of some authentic response message by an impersonator. (5) Entity authentication is to corroborate that an entity is the one claimed. (6) Data origin authentication (proof/nonrepudiation of origin) is to make certain that the source of a message is the one claimed. (7) Proof/nonrepudiation of reception shows the sender of a message that the message has been received by its legitimate receiver correctly. (8) Notarization is the registration of messages to attest at a later stage its content, origin, destination or time of issue.
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The correctness of key management protocols requires more than the existence of secure communication channels between entities and key management servers. For example, it critically depends on the capability of those servers to reliably follow the protocols. Therefore, each entity has to base its deductions not only on the protocol elements sent and received, but also on its trust in the server which, for that reason, often is called the trusted party. Key management is facilitated by the key management services, which include entity registration, key generation, certi cation, authentication, key distribution and key maintenance. Entity registration is a procedure by which an individual or a device is authenticated to the system. An absolute identi cation is provided if a link between an ID (e.g. a distinguished name or a device-ID) and some physical representation of the identi ed subject (e.g. a person or a device) can be established. An identi cation can be carried out manually or automatically. Absolute identi cation always requires at least one initial manual identi cation (e.g. by showing a passport or a device-ID). Mutual authentication is usually based on the exchange of certi cates. In any system, an entity is represented by some public data, called its (public) credentials (e.g. ID and address). Besides that, an entity may own secret credentials (e.g. testimonials) that may or may not be known by some trusted party. Whenever an entity is registered, a certi cate based upon its credentials is issued as a proof of registration. This may involve various procedures, from a protected entry in a speci c le to a signature by the certi cation authority on the credentials. Key generation refers to procedures by which keys or pairs of keys of good cryptographic quality are securely and unpredictably generated. This implies the use of a random or pseudorandom process involving random seeds, which cannot be manipulated. The requirements are that certain elements of the key space are not more probable than others, and that it is not possible for the unauthorized to gain knowledge about keys. Certi cates are issued for authentication purposes. A credential containing identifying data together with other information (e.g. public keys) is rendered unforgeable by some certifying information (e.g. a digital signature provided by the key certi cation center). Certi cation may be an on-line service where some certi cation authority provides interactive support and is actively involved in key distribution processes, or it may be an off-line service so that certi cates are issued to each entity only at some initial stage. Authentication/Veri cation may be either (1) entity authentication or identi cation, (2) message content authentication and (3) message origin authentication. The term veri cation refers to the process of checking the appropriate claims, i.e. the correct identity of an entity, the unaltered message content or the correct source of a message. The validity of a certi cate can be veri ed using some public information (e.g. a public key of the key certi cation center), and can be carried out without the assistance of the certi cation authority, so that the trusted party is only needed for issuing the certi cates. Key distribution refers to procedures by which keys are securely provided to parties legitimately asking for them. The fundamental problem of key exchange or distribution is to establish keying material to be used in symmetric mechanisms whose origin, integrity and con dentiality can be guaranteed. As a result of varied design decisions appropriate to different circumstances, a large variety of key distribution protocols exist [37, 39]. The basic elements of a key distribution protocol are as follows.
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