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the schemes must be developed with this in mind. The number of sensor nodes deployed in studying a phenomenon may be in the order of hundreds or thousands. The networks must be able to work with this number of nodes. The density can range from few sensor nodes to few hundred sensor nodes in a region, which can be less than 10 m in diameter [12]. The node density depends on the application in which the sensor nodes are deployed. For machine diagnosis application, the node density is around 300 sensor nodes in a 5 5 m2 region, and the density for the vehicle tracking application is around 10 sensor nodes per region [51]. In some cases, the density can be as high as 20 sensor nodes/m3 [51]. A home may contain around two dozen home appliances containing sensor nodes [42], but this number will grow if sensor nodes are embedded into furniture and other miscellaneous items. For habitat monitoring application, the number of sensor nodes ranges from 25 to 100 per region. The density will be extremely high when a person normally containing hundreds of sensor nodes, which are embedded in eye glasses, clothing, shoes, watch, jewelry and the human body, is sitting inside a stadium watching a basketball, football or baseball game. As a consequence, the cost of each sensor node has to be kept low. The state-of-the-art technology allows a Bluetooth radio system to be less than US$10 [46]. Also, the price of a PicoNode is targeted to be less than US$1 [45]. The cost of a sensor node should be much less than US$1 in order for the sensor network to be feasible [45]. The cost of a Bluetooth radio, which is known to be a low-cost device, is 10 times more expensive than the targeted price for a sensor node. Note that a sensor node also has some additional units such as sensing and processing units. In addition, it may be equipped with a location nding system, mobilizer or power generator depending on the applications of the sensor networks. As a result, the cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionality with a price of much less than a dollar. An illustration of sensor network topology Is shown in Figure 14.2. Deploying a high number of nodes densely requires careful handling of topology maintenance. Issues related to topology maintenance and change can be classi ed in three phases [66 77]. 14.2.1 Pre-deployment and deployment phase Sensor nodes can be either thrown in mass or placed one by one in the sensor eld. They can be deployed by dropping from a plane, delivering in an artillery shell, rocket or missile, throwing by a catapult (from a ship, etc.), placing in factory or placing one by one either by a human or a robot. Although the sheer number of sensors and their unattended deployment usually preclude placing them according to a carefully engineered deployment plan, the schemes for initial deployment must reduce the installation cost, eliminate the need for any preorganization and preplanning, increase the exibility of arrangement and promote self-organization and fault tolerance. 14.2.2 Post-deployment phase After deployment, topology changes are due to change in sensor nodes [27, 34] position, reachability (due to jamming, noise, moving obstacles, etc.), available energy, malfunctioning and task details. Sensor nodes may be statically deployed. However, device failure is a regular or common event due to energy depletion or destruction. It is also possible to have sensor networks with highly mobile nodes. In addition, sensor nodes and the network experience varying task dynamics, and they may be a target for deliberate jamming. Therefore, all these factors cause frequent changes in sensor network topologies after deployment.
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