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[36] D. Shin and J. Kim, Power-aware communication optimization for networks-on-chips with voltage scalable links, in Int. Conf. Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis, CODES + ISSS, 8 10 September 2004, pp. 170 175. [37] L. Hughes and Y. Zhang, Self-limiting, adaptive protocols for controlled ooding in ad hoc networks, in Proc. Second Annual Conf. Communication Networks and Services Research, 19 21 May 2004, pp. 33 38. [38] Y. Liu and P.X. Liu, A two-hop energy-ef cient mesh protocol for wireless sensor networks, in Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2004), vol. 2, 28 September to 2 October 2004, pp. 1786 1791. [39] A. Safwat, H. Hassanein and H. Mouftah, Energy-ef cient infrastructure formation in MANETs, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 14 16 November 2001, pp. 542 549. [40] G. Dimitroulakos, A. Milidonis, M.D. Galaris, G. Theodoridis, C.E. Gontis and F. Catthoor, Power aware data type re nement on the HIPERLAN/2, in IEEE Int. Conf. Electronics, Circuits and Systems, ICECS, vol. 1, 14 17 December 2003, pp. 216 219. [41] S. Jayashree, B.S. Manoj and C.S.R. Murthy, Next step in MAC evolution: battery awareness , in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., GLOBECOM 04, vol. 5, 29 November to 3 December 2004, pp. 2786 2790. [42] L. Zhao, X. Hong and Q. Liang, Energy-ef cient self-organization for wireless sensor networks: a fully distributed approach, in IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., GLOBECOM 04, vol. 5, 29 November to 3 December 2004, pp. 2728 2732. [43] G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari and C.S. Raghavendra, An adaptive energy-ef cient and low-latency MAC for data gathering in wireless sensor networks, in Proc. Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp., 26 30 April 2004, p. 224.
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QoS has been the main criterion in the analysis of the schemes presented so far in the book. However, in the last chapter we present some additional solutions that will be of interest in 4G networks.
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21.1 BLIND QoS ASSESSMENT SYSTEM In this section we present a method to blindly estimate the quality of a multimedia communication link using digital fragile watermarking. Data hiding by digital watermarking is usually employed for multimedia copyright protection, authenticity veri cation or similar purposes. However, watermarking is here adopted as a technique to provide a blind measure of the quality of service in multimedia communications [1 28]. The watermark embedding procedure is sketched in Figure 21.1. It consists of embedding a watermark sequence, which is usually binary, into host data by means of a key. In the detection phase, the key is used to verify the presence of the embedded sequence. With regard to the domain where the watermark embedding occurs, we can distinguish methods operating in the spatial domain [15], in the discrete cosine transform DCT domain [16 19], in the Fourier transform domain [20], and in the wavelet transform domain [1 5]. When unwanted modi cations of the watermarked data affect even the extracted watermark, the embedding scheme is known as fragile. Fragile watermarking [6 8] can be used to obtain information about the tampering process. In fact, it indicates whether or not the data has been altered and supplies localization information as to where the data was altered. Here, an unconventional use of a fragile watermark to evaluate the QoS in multimedia mobile communications is presented. Speci cally, a known watermark is superimposed onto the host data. The rationale behind this approach is that, by transmitting the watermarked
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Advanced Wireless Networks: 4G Technologies C 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Savo G. Glisic
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Figure 21.2 Principle scheme of tracing watermarking for coder-channel quality assessment in multimedia communications. data onto a channel, the mark undergoes the same alterations as suffered by the data. At the receiving side, the watermark is estimated and compared with the original. Since the alterations endured by the watermark are also likely to be suffered by the entire data, as they follow the same communication link, the watermark degradation can be used to estimate the overall alterations endured by the data. The tracing watermarking procedure for coder-channel quality assessment is given in Figure 21.2. The watermark embedding is performed by resorting to the spread-spectrum technique proposed in Cox et al. [17] for still images and applied to video sequences in Hartung and Girod [18]. The watermark is a narrowband low-energy signal. It is then spread so that it has a larger bandwidth. Consequently, the watermark energy contribution for each host frequency bin is negligible, which makes the watermark imperceptible. In the application addressed here, a system embedded into the data stream that is able to trace the degradations introduced by the transmission system composed by the coderchannel cascade and not perceptually affecting the data themselves is described.
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