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accumulation vector AV[ ], initialized with AV[0] = S. Let M be the number of active nodes (not including S and D). (1) When a border node X = D receives a query message, if the message is received for the rst time and the redundant query lter rules are satis ed: (a) It adds its own identi cation into the accumulation vector. As an example, if the node X corresponds to node B j in the interzone path, then AV [ j] = X . (b) If D belongs to X s routing zone, then the latter unicasts the query message to D. Otherwise, it executes a bordercast. (2) When the destination node D receives a query message with identi er ID for the rst time: (a) It stores the tuples (AV[i], AV[M], M + 1 i, for 0 i M 1 in EZT. (b) It prepares the list RN = (AV[i], M + 1 i)], for 0 i M. (c) It sets AV[M + 1] = D. (d) It sends a reply message to AV[M]. The message contains the AV vector accumulated in the query message. An example of path creation is given in Figure 13.44(a). (3) When a border node B j receives a reply message: (a) If B j = S, then it stores the triple (ID,AV[ j 1], AV [ j + 1]) in the IZP table, thus becoming an active node. (b) It stores the following tuples in EZT: (AV [i], AV[j 1], j i), for 0 i j 2; (AV [i], AV[j +1], j i), for j +2 i M + 1.
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AV=[S] Query S B1 B2 B3 B4 D AV=[S,B1] AV=[S,B1,B2]
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AV=[S,...,D] AV=[S,...,D] AV=[S,...,D] AV=[S,B1,B2,B3,B4,D] Reply S B1 B2 B3 B4 D
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IZP=(ID,B1,B3) RN=[(S,2),(B1,1),(B3,1),(B4,2),(D,3)] EZT S B4 D B1 B3 B3 2 2 3 active node
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UN=[B3,B4,D] UN=[B3,B4,D] UN=[B3,B4,D] UN=[B3,B4,D] DeletePath S B1 EZT S B2 B1 2 B3 B4 D
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Figure 13.44 An example of interzone path creation and deletion.
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(c) It prepares RN = [(AV[j + i], |i|)] for j i M + 1. (d) If B j = S, then it forwards the reply message to the node AV [j 1]. Figure 13.43(b) shows the state at node B2 after the reception of the reply message with AV [S,B1,B2,B3,B4,D] that caused the execution of the following actions: (1) B2 becomes a member of an interzone path [it stores the triple (ID,B1 ,B3 ) in IZP]. (2) B2 adds the entries (S,B1 ,2), (B4 ,B3 , 2), (D,B3 , 3) in EZT. (3) B2 prepares the list of reachable nodes, RN = [(S,2),(B1,1),(B3,1),(B4, 2),(D,3)]. (4) B2 forwards the reply to B1. Interzone path deletion An interzone path is broken at node B j when B j 1 (or B j+1 ) is no longer in B j s routing zone. In this case, the path is divided in two subpaths and the source node is noti ed with an error message. An active node B j executes the following actions (in the following notation means any): (1) Deletes the entry ( ,B j 1 , ) or ( ,B j+1 , ) from EZT. (2) Checks for the companion node B j+1 or B j 1 in the IZP table. (3) If the companion node is found, then it prepares the following list of unreachable nodes: N = [B0 ,B1 , . . . ,B j 1 ] (UN = [B j+1 ,B j+2 ,. . . ,B M+1 ]); and sends a Delete Path message, containing UN and the path identi er ID, to the companion node. (4) Deletes the entry (ID,B j 1 ,B j+1 ) from IZP after the successful transmission of the message. When an active path is broken, the source node either receives the Delete Path message from B1 [if the link is broken between (B j ,B j+1 ), with j > 0], or is able to detect the break autonomously via IARP. The source node thus triggers a new route discovery if required to send other packets, while the two subpaths (B0 ,B1 ,. . . ,B j 1 and B j+1 ,B j+2 , . . . ,B M+1 ) remain active. Figure 13.44(c) shows the case when the link between B2 and B3 is broken (i.e. their distance becomes higher than k). Two interzone subpaths, (S,B1 ,B2 ) and (B3 ,B4 ,D), are generated. In the gure, B2 s EZT data structure is also shown. When an active node receives a Delete Path message from one of its companion nodes X, it deletes the entries stored in the UN list from EZT and forwards the message to the other companion node. If the receiving node has some another route to a node stored in UN, then it does not include such a node when forwarding UN. Cache management In order to allow all the nodes of B j s routing zone to use the acquired information, B j broadcasts RN inside its zone. Such a message is referred to as the inject message. On receiving an inject message carrying the reachable node list RN from a node X = B j , a node Y creates a set of entries (RN[i].d,X,RN[i].#z) into its own EZT, 0 i |RN|, where RN[i].d is the rst component (destination node) of the ith pair of RN, RN[i],#z, the second component (i.e. the length), and |RN| is the number of elements of RN. Figure 13.44(a)
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