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[39] A.G. Spilling and A.R. Nix, aspects of self-organisation in cellular networks, in 9th IEEE Symp. Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Boston, MA, 1998, pp. 682 686. [40] T. Togo, I. Yoshii and R. Kohro, Dynamic cell-size control according to geographical mobile distribution in a DS/CDMA cellular system, in 9th IEEE Symp. Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Boston, MA, 1998, pp. 677 681. [41] J.C. Tiaartson, The Bluetooth radio system, IEEE Person. Commun., vol. 7, no. 1, February 2000, pp. 28 36. [42] A.G. Spilling, A.R. Nix, M.A. Beach and T.J. Harrold, Self-organisation in future mobile communications, Electron. Commun. Engng. J., June 2000, pp. 133 147.
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18.1 THE SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL Back in 1988, the simple network management protocol (SNMP), was designed to provide an easily implemented, low-overhead foundation for multivendor network management of different network resources. The SNMP speci cation: (1) de nes a protocol for exchanging information between one or more management systems and a number of agents; (2) provides a framework for formatting and storing management information; and (3) de nes a number of general-purpose management information variables, or objects. The model of network management that is used for SNMP includes the following key elements: management station, management agent, management information base and network management protocol. The management station will have, at least: (1) a set of management applications for data analysis, fault recovery, and so on; (2) an interface by which the network manager may monitor and control the network by communicating with the managed elements of the network; (3) a protocol by which the management station and managed entities exchange control and management information; (4) The management station maintains at least a summary of the management information maintained at each of the managed elements in the network in its own database of information. Only the last two elements are the subject of SNMP standardization. The management agent is a piece of SNMP software in key platforms, such as hosts, bridges, routers and hubs, by which they may be managed from a management station. The management agent responds to requests for information from a management station, responds to requests for actions from the management station, and may asynchronously provide the management station with important but unsolicited information. In order to manage the resources in a network, these resources are represented as objects. Each object is essentially a data variable that represents one aspect of the managed system. The collection of objects is referred to as a management information base (MIB). The MIB functions as
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a collection of access points at the agent for the management station; the agent software maintains the MIB. These objects are standardized across systems of a particular class (e.g. bridges all support the same management objects). A management station performs the monitoring function by retrieving the value of MIB objects. A management station can cause an action to take place at an agent or can change the con guration settings of an agent by modifying the value of speci c variables. The management station and agents are linked by a network management protocol, which includes the following key capabilities: (1) Get used by the management station to retrieve the values of objects at the agent. (2) Set used by the management station to set the values of objects at the agent. (3) Trap used by an agent to notify the management station of signi cant events. SNMP was designed to be an application-level protocol that is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite and typically operates over the user datagram protocol (UDP), although it may also operate over TCP. A manager process controls access to the central MIB at the management station and provides an interface to the network manager. The manager process achieves network management by using SNMP, which is implemented on top of UDP and IP. Each agent must also implement SNMP, UDP and IP. In addition, there is an agent process that interprets the SNMP messages and controls remote access to the agent s MIB. For an agent device that supports other applications, such as FTP, TCP as well as UDP is required. From a management station, three types of SNMP messages are issued on behalf of a management application: GetRequest, GetNextRequest and SetRequest. The rst two are variations of the get function. All three messages are acknowledged by the agent in the form of a GetResponse message, which is passed up to the management application. In addition, an agent may issue a trap message in response to an event that affects the MIB and the underlying managed resources. SNMP relies on UDP, which is a connectionless protocol, and SNMP is itself connectionless. No ongoing connections are maintained between a management station and its agents. Instead, each exchange is a separate transaction between a management station and an agent. Trap-directed polling technique is used if a management station is responsible for a large number of agents, and if each agent maintains a large number of objects. In this case it becomes impractical for the management station to regularly poll all agents for all of their readable object data. Instead, at initialization time, and perhaps at infrequent intervals, such as once a day, a management station can poll all the agents it knows of for some key information, such as interface characteristics, and perhaps some baseline performance statistics, such as average number of packets sent and received over each interface over a given period of time. Once this baseline is established, the management station refrains from polling. Instead, each agent is responsible for notifying the management station of any unusual event. Examples are if the agent crashes and is rebooted, the failure of a link or an overload condition as de ned by the packet load crossing some threshold. These events are communicated in SNMP messages known as traps. Once a management station is alerted to an exception condition, it may choose to take some action. At this point, the management station may direct polls to the agent reporting the event and perhaps to some nearby agents in order to diagnose any problem and to gain more speci c information about the exception condition. Having in mind that traps are communicated via UDP and are therefore delivered unreliably, a management station may wish to infrequently poll agents. All these options should be used in such a way as
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