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Simulation results for cluster size and cluster survival times are given in Figures 13.40 and and 13.41. Finally logical relationships among MANET network-layer entities is given in Figure 13.42. 13.6 CASHING SCHEMES FOR ROUTING A large class of routing protocols for MANETs, namely reactive protocols, employ some form of caching to reduce the number of route discoveries. The simplest form of caching is based on timeouts associated with cache entries. When an entry is cached, a timer starts. When the timeout elapses, the entry is removed from the cache. Each time the entry is used, the timer restarts. Therefore, the effectiveness of such a scheme depends on the timeout
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6 Mean cluster size (number-of-nodes) 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mean mobile speed (km/h) a = 0.4 .4 a = 0.2
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Figure 13.41 Simulation results: (a) cluster size (R = 1000 m); (b) cluster size (R = 500 m); (c) cluster survival (R = 1000 m); and (d) cluster survival (R = 500 m). (Reproduced by permission of IEEE [74].)
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Figure 13.41 Continued.
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Figure 13.42 Logical relationships among MANET network-layer entities.
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value associated with a cached route. If the timeout is well-tuned, the protocol performance increases; otherwise, a severe degradation arises as entries are removed either prematurely or too late from the cache. 13.6.1 Cache management A cache scheme is characterized by the following set of design choices that specify cache management in terms of space (cache structure) and time (i.e. when to read/add/ delete a cache entry): store policy, read policy, writing policy and deletion policy. The store policy determines the structure of the route cache. Recently, two different cache structures were studied [81], namely link cache and path cache, and applied to DSR. In a link cache structure, each individual link in the routes returned in RREP packets is added to a uni ed graph data structure, managed at each node, that re ects the node s current view of the network topology. In so doing, new paths can be calculated by merging route information gained from different packets. In the path cache, however, each node stores a set of complete paths starting from itself. The implementation of the latter structure is easier compared with the former, but it does not permit inference of new routes and exploitation of all topology information available at a node. The reading policy determines rules of using a cache entry. Besides the straightforward use from the source node when sending a new message, several other strategies are possible. For example, DSR de nes the following policies:
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cache reply an intermediate node can reply to a route request with information stored in its own cache; salvaging an intermediate node can use a path from its own cache when a data packet meets a broken link on its source route; gratuitous reply a node runs the interface in the promiscuous mode and it listens for packets not directed to itself. If the node has a better route to the destination node of a packet, it sends a gratuitous reply to the source node with this new better route.
The writing policy determines when and which information has to be cached. Owing to the broadcast nature of radio transmissions, it is quite easy for a node to learn about new paths by running its radio interface in the promiscuous mode. The main problem for the writing policy is indeed to cache valid paths. Negative caches are a technique proposed in Johnson and Maltz [82] and adapted in Marina and Das [83] to lter the writing of cache entries in DSR out. A node stores negative caches for broken links seen either via the route error control packets or link layer for a period of time of t s. Within this time interval, the writing of a new route cache that contains a cached broken link is disabled. The deletion policy determines which information has to be removed from the cache and when. Deletion policy is actually the most critical part of a cache scheme. Two kinds of errors can occur, owing to an imprecise erasure: (1) early deletion, a cached route is removed when it is still valid; and (2) late deletion, a cached route is not removed even if it is no longer valid. The visible effect of these kinds of errors is a reduction in the packet delivery fraction and an increase in the routing overhead (the total number of overhead packets) [84]. Late deletions create the potential risk of an avalanche effect, especially at high load. If a node replies with a stale route, the incorrect information may be cached by other nodes and, in turn, used as a reply to a discovery. Thus, cache pollution can propagate fairly quickly [83].