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IPOs % of Total
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Number of Biotech IPOs
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FIGURE 6.29 Venture-backed biotech IPOs and percentage of total venture-
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backed IPOs, 1998 2002.
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Source: PwC/TVE/NVCA MoneyTree
mid-1990s. Disbursements went from a high of $190 million in 1998 to $67 million in 2002. Early stage venture capital disbursements, which are made to compa nies with a product or service in testing or pilot production increased from a low of $225 million in 1996 to a high of $917 million in 2001, falling off to $752 million in 2002. Disbursements in expansion stage biotech compa nies were much more volatile than those in other stages. Expansion stage disbursements, which go to biotech companies with a product or service that is commercially available and that typically demonstrates revenue growth, climbed from $168 million in 1995 to a high of $2,687 million in 2000. The slide to $1,477 million in 2002 represents a decrease of 45 per cent. In addition, as illustrated in Figure 6.30, disbursements in expansion stage biotech companies peaked two years later than disbursements in seed/startup stage companies. The relative levels of disbursements in later stage biotech companies, which approximate the disbursements in early stage companies, peaked in 2001 with $613 million in funding, and fell to $463 million in 2002.
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2.1 Disbursement ($B)
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1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
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FIGURE 6.30 Venture capital disbursements in the United States by stage of
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Source: PwC/TVE/NVCA MoneyTree survey
The disbursement pro le in the United States, which favors later stage companies, is paralleled by venture capital disbursements in Europe. Ac cording to Ernst & Young s 10th Annual Biotech Report, disbursements for seed/startup biotech companies in Europe constituted 70 percent of dis bursements in 2000 but only 35 percent by the end of 2002. This shift from nancing seed/startup companies is attributed to the reluctance of venture capitalists to invest in a business with a 10 to 15 year delay before a chance of a payback. The European and United States disbursement pattern contrasts with that of the Canadian venture capital community, which tends to focus equally on biotech companies at all stages of development. In the period from 1998 through 2002, the number of biotech rms in Canada virtually doubled and funding quadrupled, according the Ernst & Young Global Biotechnology Report Beyond Borders.
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Strategic Alliances
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Given the signi cant risks, research and development costs, and relative scarcity of human and physical resources, strategic technology alliances be tween industry, government, and academia are increasingly common in biotech. A sample of the many forms strategic alliances in biotech can take is shown in Figure 6.31. The most common include joint research activi ties, technical codevelopment, contract research, technical exchanges, and strategic research partnerships. Furthermore, within each category, several mechanisms enable joint research and development. Technical exchanges may take the form of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, and user facility agreements, to technical assistance. Strategic research partner ships include research joint ventures, cooperative research and develop ment agreements, and strategic technical alliances. Also signi cant are Cooperative Research and Development Agree ments (CRADAs), which enable industry partners to maintain the intellec tual property rights of products developed through strategic alliances with the federal government. Similarly, programs such as the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) facilitate the formation of domestic alliances. The National Science Foundation reports that the primary interna tional strategic technology alliances are in information technology, biotechnology, advanced materials, aerospace and defense, automotive, and nonbiotechnology chemicals. Most of these strategic alliances involved the United States, Europe, and Japan. Furthermore, the number of biotech alliances peaked at 199 in 2000, which represents 35 percent of all strate gic alliances. Figure 6.32 shows the number of strategic alliances in biotech from
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Strategic Alliances Joint Research Activities Technical Codevelopment Contract Research Technical Exchange Strategic Research Partnerships Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) Small Business Technology Transfer Programs (STTR) Small Business Innovation Research Programs (SBIR)
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