Pharmaceutical Market in .NET

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isn t acquiring another rm is the exception rather than the rule. Because of their massive economic impact on local and regional economies, most mergers of the pharmaceutical titans warranted front-page coverage in the popular press, as well as the attention of the various antitrust regula tory agencies. As an indication of the frequency of mergers in the pharmaceutical in dustry, consider the frenzied merger activity over the past decade, which is actually a continuation of activity over the past century. For example, the U.K. drug companies Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKlineBeecham PLC merged in 2000 to form the largest drug company in the world, and the largest company in the United Kingdom. Similarly, Glaxo Wellcome was formed by a merger of Glaxo and Wellcome in 1995, at the time the largest merger in the United Kingdom. SmithKlineBeecham PLC was formed by the merger of the U.S. rm SmithKline and the U.K. pharmaceutical Beecham in 1989. Zeneca, an other major U.K. pharmaceutical, merged with the Swedish rm Astra in 1999 to form AstraZeneca, which is headquartered in the United States. The German pharmaceutical rm Hoechst merged with the French rm Rhone Poulenc in 1999 to form Aventis. In addition to buying time to mar ket with a new blockbuster drug, a motivation for Hoechst to form Aventis was the savings of over $1 billion annually because of the lower taxes re sulting from its moving corporate headquarters from Germany to France. The Swedish rm Pharmacia merged with the U.S. rm Upjohn in 1995 and moved its corporate headquarters to the United States. Pharma cia then merged with Monsanto and Searle in 2000. Swiss rms CibaGeigy, Ltd. (formed by the merger of Ciba and Geigy in 1970) and Sandoz merged in 1996 to form Novartis. P zer acquired Warner Lambert in 2000 and Pharmacia in 2003. Most of these companies set records for the largest mergers ever in their respective countries at the time. As an exam ple of the magnitude of pharmaceutical acquisitions, consider that P zer s acquisition of Pharmacia was a $57-billion deal that resulted in a com pany that held about 11 percent of the world market for prescription drugs in 2003. The rate-limiting step in most of these mergers, aside from the votes of stockholders, has been permission by the governmental regulatory com missions involved in assessing the effects of the mergers on competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical rms to the orders issued by the commissions. For example, when Roche proposed acquiring Corange Lim ited, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) required Roche to divest or li cense all of the assets relating to several drugs because the merger would have allowed Roche to control the market. Similarly, because the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz would have resulted in an anticompetitive impact on the innovation of gene therapies, Novartis was required to grant to all
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PHARMACEUTICALS
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requesters a nonexclusive license to certain patented technologies essential for development and commercialization of gene therapy products. The incentive for pharmaceutical rms to ll their drug development pipeline through consolidation can be appreciated by examining how few truly new drugs are released by the top pharmaceutical rms every year. Figure 2.5 illustrates the number of new but not necessarily blockbuster drugs released by the top 10 pharmaceutical rms worldwide during the ve-year period from 1998 through 2002. P zer, the number one pharmaceutical rm in terms of market capitalization, released, on average, one drug per year. The second ranked company, Johnson & Johnson, had no new drugs during the same period. Merck, GlaxoSmithKline, and Novartis each introduced more than one drug per year, on average, during the ve-year period. It s interesting to note that Novar tis, with eight new drugs introduced in 1998 through 2002, achieved its
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Pfizer Johnson & Johnson Merck GlaxoSmithKline Novartis Amgen Eli Lilly & Co. AstraZeneca Abbot Laboratories Wyeth
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