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tablishing a stock market system that mirrors those in Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States. China s information technology infrastructure is considered fair be cause of the limited access to the Internet and high-speed computing facili ties. However, Chinese researchers were nonetheless key participants in the computationally intensive International Human Genome Sequencing Con sortium. Furthermore, the government is in the process of extending broadband communications throughout the country. As a member of the World Trade Organization, China has obligations regarding the handling of intellectual property, including biotech patents. However, China s transformation into the rule-based economy de ned by the WTO may take a decade or more. In addition to ful lling WTO oblig ations, China has other motivations for protecting its intellectual and ge netic property. For example, to prevent the continued practice of biotech companies illegally exporting thousands of DNA samples obtained from its own people, the government established the Human Genetic Resource Ad ministration to capture pro ts from intellectual property generated from Chinese DNA. Similarly, Mainland China is seeking to protect its intellec tual property rights regarding the use of traditional Chinese medicines. Hong Kong s intellectual property provisions are more closely aligned with those of the West. There is a shortage of trained scientists and science managers in Mainland China. One reason for the shortage is the brain drain of scien tists leaving China to train and often work in the United States. China is addressing this problem by instituting programs in which researchers are given joint appointments that allow them to spend half of their time in China and half of their time working abroad. Other approaches in clude offering expatriots Western-style incentives, such as stock and pro t sharing, bonuses, and protected research budgets, as well as bene ts and access to better, more affordable schooling for their children. Venture capital is also readily available to experienced entrepreneurs who are willing to relocate to China. According to the Wall Street Jour nal, the government has also established dozens of returnee startup parks, which are responsible for the formation of over 4,000 new biotech companies. Special government agencies also help streamline the repatriation process. Because of these and similar programs, together with the downturn in the biotech economy in the West, more Chinese are returning home after studying and working abroad. According to statistics from the Embassy of the People s Republic of China, 81 percent of scientists with the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and 51 percent of the administrators of China s colleges and universities have studied abroad. Furthermore, from 1978 to 2002, of the 580,000 Chinese who pursued their education
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abroad, 150,000 have returned home. More than 18,000 Chinese returned home in 2002, compared with less than 6,000 in 1995. The public attitude in China toward biotech is positive. Whether this is due to lack of knowledge as in the United States or because the govern ment supports public education programs on the ethical implications of ge nomic research, the result is that the Chinese population is receptive to agriculture and medical biotech. The SARS crisis of 2003 revealed some weaknesses in the Chinese health-care regulatory system, which authorities addressed amid international criticism. Financing Financing for biotech in China is predominantly from the gov ernment and venture capital, with are rated as good sources. Other nancing sources rank either fair or poor. For example, although there are several funds available to scientists on the mainland, including The Asian Development Bank, the United Nations, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation, the contribution from these sources is modest compared to government support. According to the Wall Street Journal, the 200 government-backed ven ture capital agencies invested $420 million in startups in 2002. Although ven ture capital is increasing signi cantly in China, the lack of clear exit strategies, such as IPOs, makes the market less attractive that it would be otherwise. The Initial Public Offering (IPO) that drove skyrocketing stock valuation in the technology sectors in the United States and Europe. The lack of an effective IPO system in China is a reason that private investors aren t a signi cant source of funding. As China s in uence in the biotech market grows, strategic alliances will become increasingly important in nancing biotech efforts. Hong Kong has several government-backed funds targeting local biotech ventures. However, investors in Hong Kong work with companies that have a record of success and are accustomed to shorter-term prof itability. Few investors are interested in supporting a startup company for the 10 or 15 years required to bring a drug to market, especially when more lucrative options are available in the short term. The major prob lems with nancing biotech ventures in Hong Kong are that there is only a small local market for biotech products and that the country has a history of expertise in nance and the service industry, not in world-class research and development. Biotech Industries Pharmaceuticals and agricultural biotech industries, the two major pillars of biotech in China, are rated good. The remain ing industries are ranked as poor because of their relative insigni cance as industries, even though these areas may be the focus of considerable ac tive research. Much of China s pharmaceutical production is for internal consumption,
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