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ls -l alink lrwxrwxrwx 1 roger users 8 2004-05-17 22:19 alink -> file.bz2
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Note the l in the first position: This is a symbolic link to file.bz2 in the same directory.
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On many occasions when permissions are discussed, you will see them being described in a three-digit numerical form (sometimes more digits for exceptional cases), such as 644. If a file has permissions 644, it has read and write permissions for the owner and read permissions for the group and for others. This works because Linux actually stores file permissions as sequences of octal numbers. This is easiest to see by example:
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421421421 -rw-r--r--rwxr-xr-x -r--r--r--r-------644 755 444 400
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So for each owner, group, and others, a read permission is represented by 4 (the high bit of a 3-bit octal value), a write permission is represented by 2 (the middle bit of a 3-bit octal value), and an execute permission is represented by 1 (the low bit of a 3-bit octal value).
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2 Linux Fundamentals
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Changing ownership and permissions
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You can change the ownership of a file with the command chown. If you are logged in as root, you can issue a command like this:
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chown harpo:users file.txt
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This changes the ownership of the file file.txt to the user harpo and the group users. To change the ownership of a directory and everything in it, you can use the command with the -R (recursive) option, like this:
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chown -R harpo:users /home/harpo/some_directory/
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The chmod command is also used to change file permissions. You can use chmod with both the numerical and the rwx notation we discussed earlier in the chapter. Again, this is easiest to follow by looking at a few examples: chmod u+x afile Adds execute permissions for the owner of the file chmod g+r afile Adds read permissions for the group owning the file chmod o-r afile Removes read permission for others chmod a+w afile Adds write permissions for all chmod 644 afile Changes the permissions to 644 chmod 755 afile Changes the permissions to 755 If you use chmod with the rwx notation, u means the owner, g means the group, o means others, and a means all. In addition, + means add permissions, and - means remove permissions, while r, w, and x still represent read, write, and execute, respectively. When setting permissions, you can see the translation between the two notations by executing the chmod command with the -v (verbose) option. For example:
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chmod -v 755 afile mode of `afile changed to 0755 (rwxr-xr-x) chmod -v 200 afile mode of `afile changed to 0200 (-w-------)
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Using umask
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When a user creates a file, it is created with certain permissions. You can create an empty file with the touch command:
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touch newfile
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If you then list the file, you will see something like this:
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ls -l newfile -rw-r--r-- 1 roger users 0 2004-05-18 10:00 newfile
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So the file has been created with the permissions 644. What controls the permissions with which a new file gets created is something called the umask.
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Part I SUSE Linux Basics
By default on a SUSE system, a normal user s umask is 022, which means that the permissions for a new file added to 022 will make 666, while the permissions for a new directory added to 022 will make 777. SUSE s defaults are relatively generous and open the fact that the users you create are by default all members of the same group (users) and that the default umask is 022 means that files created by one user can be read by another. If you want to change a user s umask, you can change it in the .bashrc file; see the section on user preferences that follows.
Configuring user preferences
Linux stores most user preferences in so-called dot files in the user s home directory. If a filename starts with a dot, it will not be displayed by the ls command unless you use the -a option and is therefore regarded as a hidden file. Both dot files and dot directories are used to hold preferences for most of the programs you use. Many programs will write a new dot file in your home directory when you run them for the first time. Many of these dot files have names that include the letters rc this comes from the initial letters of run command and is an old Unix legacy. The same letters rc will be seen in the SUSE commands used for starting and stopping services. In particular, the KDE desktop uses a directory .kde in a user s home directory to store preferences for all KDE programs as well as your desktop settings. This directory contains multiple subdirectories and preference files for many KDE applications. The behavior of the bash shell is determined by the user s file .bashrc. Exactly how bash preferences are set is complicated; as mentioned earlier, the system-wide files /etc/profile and /etc/profile.local are also read, and the user s file .profile is read at login. You can modify various aspects of how bash behaves by editing .bashrc. In particular, you could change your umask simply by adding a line at the end of .bashrc like this: