Part II The SUSE System in .NET

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Part II The SUSE System
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Listing 7-9: Entry for logcheck Log File to Monitor
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$LOGTAIL /var/log/messages > $TMPDIR/check.$$ $LOGTAIL /var/log/warn >> $TMPDIR/check.$$ $LOGTAIL /var/log/mail >> $TMPDIR/check.$$
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These entries direct logcheck to append messages from various system log files to a temporary file for later analysis. It is important to realize that the first $LOGTAIL entry copies the log file since the last read and the last two concatenate /var/log/warn and /var/log/mail into the temporary file. The $LOGTAIL environment variable is used to call the logtail application, which will read in a text file and output only new data since it was last passed through logtail. This stops you from receiving old warnings about log activity. When the temporary file has been created, the whole file is compared against the hacking and violation files we talked about before. It is a relatively involved process to get logcheck customized, and we have done the hard work for you to get it working with the SUSE RPM we build in the 12. We recommend you use this RPM as opposed to using the source distribution available unless you know what you are doing. Listing 7-10 displays an example of mail sent to the root user by the logcheck script. Take note that under the heading Security Violations are two entries referring to failed login attempts via SSH.
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Listing 7-10: logcheck Example Mail
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From root@bible.suse.com Thu May 27 23:23:41 2004 X-Original-To: root Delivered-To: root@bible.suse.com Date: Thu, 27 May 2004 23:23:39 +0100 To: root@bible.suse.com Subject: bible 05/27/04:23.23 system check User-Agent: nail 10.6 11/15/03 MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit From: root@bible.suse.com (root)
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Security Violations =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= May 27 23:23:35 bible sshd[5019]: error: PAM: Authentication failure May 27 23:23:35 bible sshd[5019]: error: PAM: Authentication failure Unusual System Events =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= May 27 23:23:35 bible sshd[5019]: error: PAM: Authentication failure
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7 Logging
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May 27 23:23:35 bible sshd[5019]: error: PAM: Authentication failure May 27 23:23:10 bible postfix/pickup[3881]: E47F918D21: uid=0 from=<root> May 27 23:23:10 bible postfix/cleanup[4941]: E47F918D21: messageid=<40B66A4E.mail3V41ZYZPX@bible.suse.com> May 27 23:23:11 bible postfix/qmgr[3882]: E47F918D21: from=<root@bible.suse.com>, size=1161, nrcpt=1 (queue active) May 27 23:23:11 bible postfix/local[4944]: E47F918D21: to=<root@bible.suse.com>, orig_to=<root>, relay=local, delay=1, status=sent (delivered to mailbox) May 27 23:23:11 bible postfix/qmgr[3882]: E47F918D21: removed
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How often you set logcheck to run will depend on how much data you receive in the email. If you have an active system, we recommend that you increase the frequency of the logcheck runs. If you have a relatively small system, running logcheck once a day will produce a manageable email that can be handled when things are quiet.
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Another popular log analyzer is webalizer. Webalizer was specifically written to produce an HTML page with graphing statistics for access to a web site. Figure 7-1 shows a webalizer page for a busy site.
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Figure 7-1: Webalizer output The webalizer page is quite long and contains information on the amount of traffic served; how many hits per month, per day, per hour; ranking of the most popular pages; and so on. To access specific information about a certain month, you can click its entry and you will be presented with a screen similar to Figure 7-2.
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Part II The SUSE System
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Figure 7-2: Month output in webalizer Webalizer outputs all of its data by default into /var/lib/webalizer, which is linked to /srv/www/htdocs/webalizer for serving via Apache.
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CrossReference Apache configuration is covered in 16.
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This allows you to automate the running of webalizer on a foreign system and, at the same time, allows you to access the results via the web server you are analyzing. We will not talk about the configuration of webalizer here, as the configuration file /etc/ webalizer.conf is extremely well documented, and the default suits 99 percent of people who need to analyze their web traffic.
Reading Log Files
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This chapter has covered what logging on a SUSE Linux system means and what you can do with the messages that are generated both by the kernel and processes that you run. However, reading log files is a skill in itself. There is no good way to teach people how to read log files; rather, it is something that comes with experience. However, we will give you are short rundown of common entries you will find in /var/log/messages and how to at least interpret them to help you on your way. The following line is an example of a log entry indicating an SSH login failure:
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