Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, Second Edition. P. Harrison 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in Java

Draw ANSI/AIM Code 39 in Java Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, Second Edition. P. Harrison 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, Second Edition. P. Harrison 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Brillouin zone (the F-point), and close by (a few tens to a few hundreds of meV below) there is a third band. The first two are called heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) bands, and they cease to be degenerate for finite values of the wave vector k = kx, ky, kz: the energy of the former descends at a slower rate as the wave vector moves away from the F-point, which corresponds to a larger effective mass, hence the name. The third band is called the spin orbit split-off (SO) band. An example of the valence band dispersion is given in Fig. 10.1. Any one of the bands is an energy eigenstate of the bulk material, and 'pure' (singleband) states with definite energy may therefore exist in bulk. However, in the case of position-dependent potentials this will no longer be true: states in quantum wells, for instance, will be 'mixtures', with all the bulk bands contributing to their wave functions. The contribution of a particular bulk band to a quantised state generally depends on its energy spacing from that band: the smaller the energy, the larger the relative contribution will be (this follows from quantum mechanical perturbation theory). When two or more bands are degenerate, or almost degenerate, states in their vicinity are likely to have similar contributions from these bands. In a quantum well type of structure, for energies which are not far from the conduction band edges of the constituent materials, a quantised state wave function will have contributions mostly from the conduction bands of these materials, each of which has s-like character, and there will be a single envelope wave function (solution of the effective mass Schrodinger equation) which represents the amplitude of these, s-like Bloch functions. On the other hand, a quantised state near the valence band edges of any of the constituent materials is expected to comprise 2 or 3 of the bulk valence bands with comparable contributions, each having its own envelope function. Depending on the accuracy required in the calculation of the quantised states, and on the positions of the bands in the bulk materials, different number of bands may be included in the calculation. It may sometimes suffice to explicitly include just HH and LH bands, or, on other occasions, also the SO band in the description of the system. Generally, the Hamiltonians which describe states in such situations are matrices, or systems of coupled Schrodinger equations, which will deliver the possible energies and wave functions expressed as a set of envelope functions (which vary slowly over a crystalline unit cell), themselves representing the amplitudes of the corresponding basis states (usually the bulk bands). For this reason the method is known as the 'multiband envelope function', or 'multiband effective mass method' and, because the interaction of bulk bands is described via the k.p perturbation, it is also known as the k.p method. Clearly, the concept of bulk band mixing in forming quantised states of a system applies to more remote bands as well. The conduction band quantised states will thus include contributions from bulk valence band states, and vice versa, and there exist extended versions of the k.p method which explicitly include the HH, LH, SO, and the conduction band, or still wider variants including even more remote bands. However, in this work attention will be focussed on 4- and 6-band Hamiltonians, which explicitly include the valence band states. The number of bands the Hamiltonian is named after
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is the number of bands that are explicitly included, i.e. their envelope wave functions are explicitly evaluated. However, such Hamiltonians do implicitly account for the existence of other, more remote bands, and their influence is incorporated via the values of the material parameters. In this context, the conventional (conduction band) effective mass Schrodinger equation is just a special case of the multiband envelope function model, where the existence of bands other than the conduction band is accounted for by using the effective, rather than the free electron mass, and only the conduction band envelope wave function is calculated explicitly. The 4and 6-band Hamiltonians for the valence envelope wave functions were derived by Luttinger and Kohn [226] using k.p perturbation theory, while the 8-band model (that includes the conduction band) was developed by Pidgeon and Brown [227].
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Figure 10.1 The valence and conduction bands of a group IV or III-V semiconductor near the F-point of the Brillouin zone.
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