Figure 4-5 An object in Java

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Figure 4-5 An object
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Interface
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In the UML, a Java interface is depicted as a class stereotyped with <<interface>> Stereotyped classes may optionally have icons associated with them In the case of an interface, the UML iconic representation is a small circle This iconic representation is commonly used for representing Java interfaces when modeling in the UML
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Figure 4 - 6
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shows the standard interface representation
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Figure 4-6 An interface
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shows an alternate and more compact form of representation
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Figure 4-7 Alternate representation of an interface in the UML
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Either approach is acceptable from a modeling perspective and really comes down to your individual preference This book makes extensive use of the icon representation for diagrams presente d
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Package
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A Java package maps to a UML package Packages may be logical, meaning you may only use them as a grouping mechanism Packages can also be physical, meaning they result in a physical directory in the file system
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The UML package is represented a s a folder, as shown in Figure 4 - 8 Packages may be stereotyped to distinguish the type of package, for example, using <<subsystem>> to identify the package as a subsystem (A subsystem refers to a group of UML elements and represents a behavioral unit in a model It can have interfaces as well as operations
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Subsystems are typically significant from an analysis and design perspective There is no direct mapping between a subsystem and a Java language construct)
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Figure 4-8 A package
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Representing Relationships
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Relationships play a key role in capturing and modeling the important structural aspects of a Java application
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Some of these relationships, such as inheritance, can be explicitly identified in the Java language via predefined keywords Others are not as easily identifiable in Java code but can nonetheless be represented
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Inheritance
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The UML concept of generalization is analogous to inheritance in Java Generalization maps directly to the extends keyword and is shown visually via a line with a triangle at the end nearest the super class See
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Figure 4 - 9
Figure 4-9 Representing the inheritance relationship
Realization
In Java, a class may implement one or more interfaces The Java keyword implements maps to the concept of realization in UML
In the UML, realization can be shown in two different ways If the stereotyped class approach is used for representing an interface, realization is shown via a dashed line with a triangle at the end touching the interface If the circle notation is used for an interface, a plain, solid line connecting the interface and the implementing class is used
These approaches are shown in Figure 4-10 and Figure 4-11 Note that the approach shown in Figure
4 -1 1
is shorthand for the approach shown in Figure 4 - 1 0 It is inappropriate to mix the two For
example, showing an interface via a circle and using the dashed line with a triangle would be inappropriate
Figure 4-10 UML realization
Figure 4-11 Alternate representation of interface realization
Dependency
Anytime a class uses another class in some fashion, a dependency exists between the two The relationship is that of the user depending on the class that it is u sing In the UML, a dependency is shown via a dotted line with an arrow touching the class that is causing the dependency
A dependency exists if a class:
Has a local variable based on another class Has a reference to an object directly Has a reference to an object indirectly, for example, via some operation parameters Uses a class's static operation
Dependency relationships also exist between packages containing classes that are related Dependencies between packages are shown via a dotted line with an arrowhead See Figure
4 -1 2
Figure 4 - 1 3
Figure 4-12 Dependency between classes
Figure 4-13 Dependency between packages
Association
Conceptually, an association between two classes signifies that some sort of structural relationship exists between the classes
In the UML, an association is shown by drawing a line between the classes that participate in the relationship Associations may be unidirectional or bidirectional Bidirectional association is shown with a simple line Unidirectional association is shown with an arrow on one end
A unidirectional association implies that an object of the class from which the arrow is originating (ie, the class that has the nonarrowhead side of the association) may invoke methods on the class towards which the arrow is pointing In Java, this manifests itself as an instance variable on the class that may invoke methods
Figure 4 - 1 4