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machine, as opposed to the stat)istical security of the ciphertext, as discussed in some detail in [ 2 3 ] . We return to this theme a t the end of the chapter after we have analyzed the most famous cipher machines of the war. While there are many sources of information on WWII ciphers, much of the information is unreliable. Among the best sources are [23, 291.
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It 1na.y well be doubted whether human ingenuity can construct an enigma.. . which human ingenuity may not, by proper application. resolve. Edgar Allen Poe. The Gold Bug
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The Enigma cipher was used by Germany prior to and throughout World War 11. The forerunner of the military Enigma machine was originally developed by Arthur Scherbius as a commercial device. The Enigma was patented in the 1920s but it continued to evolve over time. However, all versions of the Enigma a,re rotor machines, and they share certain additional common features. The German military eventually become interested in the Enigma and, after further modifications, it became the primary cipher syst,em for all bmnches of the German military. The German government also used the Enigma for diplomatic communications. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 Enigma machines were constructed, about 40,000 of those during World War 11. The version of Enigma that we describe here was used by the German military throughout World War I1 [47]. The Enigma was broken by the Allies, and the intelligence it provided was invaluable--as evidence by its cover name, ULTRA.The Germans had an unwavering belief in the security of the Enigma, and they continued to use it for vital communications long after there were clear indications that it had been compromised. Although it, is impossible to precisely quantify the effect of Enigma decrypts on the outcome of t.he war, it is not. farfekhed t.o suggest that the intelligence provided by Enigma decrypts may have shortened the war in Europe by a year, saving hundreds of thousands of lives.
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An Enigma cipher machine appears in Figurr 2.1. where the keyboard essentially, a mechanical typewriter arid light board are visible. The front panel consists of cables plugged into what appears to be an old-fashioned telephone switchboard. This switchboard (or plugboard) is known by its German name, stecker. There are also three rotors visible near the top of the machine.
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Figure 2.1: Enigma cipher [46]. Before encrypting a message, the operator had to initialize the device. The initial settings include various rotor settings and the stecker cable pluggings. These initial settings constitute the key. Once the machine had been initialized, the message was typed on the keyboard, and the as each plaintext letter was typed, the corresponding ciphertext letter was illuminated on the lightboard. The ciphertext letters were written down as they appeared on the lightboard, to be subsequently transmitted, typically by radio. To decrypt, the recipient s Enigma had to be initialize in exactly the same way as the sender s. Then when the ciphertext was typed into the keyboard, the corresponding plaintext letters would appear on the lightboard. The cryptographically significant components of the Enigma are illustrated in Figure 2.2. These components and the way that they interact are described below. To encrypt, a plaintext letter is entered on the keyboard. This letter first passes through the stecker, then, in turn, through each of the three rotors, through the reflector, back through each of the three rotors, back through the stecker, and, finally, the resulting ciphertext letter is illuminated on the lightboard. Each rotor-as well as the reflector-consists of a hard-wired permutation of the 26 letters. Rotors as cryptographic elements are discussed in detail in Section 2.2.3. In the example illustrated in Figure 2 . 2 , the plaintext letter C is typed on the keyboard, which is mapped to S due to the st,ecker cable connecting C to S. The letter S then passes through the rotors, the reflector, and back through the rotors. The net effect of all the rotors and the reflector is a permutation of the alphabet. In the example in Figure 2.2, S has been permuted to Z, which then becomes L due to the stecker cable between L and Z. Finally, the
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