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You may have heard that the Internet was developed by the Pentagon to continue communications after a nuclear war. Close. The Internet was developed out of a series of networking projects funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to link existing networks. That s where the term Internet came from: Interconnected Networks gave way to Internet. Early on, universities (often while funded by DARPA) connected their existing campus networks to the new DARPA Internet. Technically, the Internet is a network of networks. Other protocols developed based on the requirements for local networking. Connections between systems were assumed to be reliable and speedy. TCP/IP designs assumed the networks were not local, connections were not reliable, and bandwidth for high speeds was not available. TCP/IP developers tested the protocol on wireless and satellite networks from the beginning. Why did TCP/IP become the only protocol allowed on the Internet starting on January 1, 1983 (called Flag Day, although not the one on your calendar) The following reasons highlight the features that made TCP/IP the protocol of choice. Connectionless Packet Delivery Service: This is the IP part of the feature list. Until this technology, most networking (like the telephone network) had to create a link between end devices. That meant the connection protocol had to understand all the details of the network between the two devices. IP skips this problem by mapping directly onto the underlying hardware (or now wireless network links) and traversing the connecting devices linking different hardware networks. Lost packets in a sequence are requested when the receiving end realizes the packets are lost. Reliable Stream Transport Service: This is the TCP part of the feature list. When applications need a direct link and will be disrupted by packet loss (which happens with IP), the programmers demand TCP. The network connection gets established by making a link across the Internet reliable
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like a wire between two systems. The sending device won t send Packet 2 until the receiving device has acknowledged the accurate receipt of Packet 1. (There are ways to speed that process, such as acknowledging seven received packets at once, but they aren t important now). The following features, along with the maturation of TCP/IP starting in the late 1970s (work started in the early 1970s), made the Internet technically feasible. Independent network topology: The protocols are separate from the underlying hardware, because TCP/IP is a standard implemented by every hardware vendor who makes network equipment. As long as the hardware supports TCP/IP, the packets zooming around don t care whose name is on the router, computer, network interface card, wire, or wiring hub. They all support TCP/IP, just like the road doesn t care what type of car or truck runs on top of it. Universal interconnection: By using unique addresses, any two computers on the network can communicate. The address uses a form recognizable to all other systems on the network, and each packet of data (often called a datagram in the early days) holds its source and destination addresses. Because each data packet knows its destination address, it routes through the Internet to reach it independently of other data packets. End-to-end acknowledgments: Some early networks tracked progress across each and every connection point along the way. In other words, each router a packet passed sent an acknowledgment back to the source of the packet. That caused an enormous amount of extra traf c, and didn t really tell whether a packet reached the nal destination. The Internet protocols decided to rely on acknowledgements from the end points, rather than interim points. This end-to-end acknowledgment scheme gave the crucial information (destination reached) without the extra traf c, and works when the end points don t share any direct links to each other. Standards for applications: Although the lower part of the protocol stack looks to the transport support details, the upper part provides support for applications. Developers can use these existing services to provide communication support for applications rather than trying to write their own communication protocols. TCP/IP wasn t discovered. These protocols developed after long years of hard work by networking pioneers. Some funding and technology came from the U.S. Government, some from universities and other research sites, and some from the early vendors making the newly designed hardware and software products. This process called for everyone to share information rather than hoard it. Groups of individuals gave up their time to meet and hash out differences to ensure all parts of the developing network t together properly. Many of those groups (with new members, of course) still remain to watch Internet development, but the aggressive push of some large companies has distorted the process away from a spirit of community to a spirit of commercialization. Not all changes bring advancement.
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