DTMF Detection Using All-Pole Modeling in .NET

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9.4.4 DTMF Detection Using All-Pole Modeling
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In this experiment, we will present the MATLAB script to show the basic concept of DTMF detection using the LPC all-pole modeling. Table 9.14 lists the les used for this experiment. Procedures of the experiment are listed as follows: 1. Copy the MATLAB les DTMF.fig and DTMF.m from the previous experiment to the directory ..\ exp9.4.4_LPC. 2. Modify DTMF.m to replace the Link for CCS function by the code listed in Table 9.15. This function reads the DTMF data. The all-pole function is implemented using the Levinson algorithm to avoid direct matrix inversion in computing the autocorrelation and LPC coef cients. The roots of LPC coef cients are calculated using the MATLAB function roots. Finally, the amplitude and angles are analyzed and compared to detect DTMF tones. 3. The user interface is the same as the previous experiment. Press DTMF keys to generate a PCM le. Press the Decode DTMF key to start the decoder.
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Table 9.14 Files DTMF.m DTMF.fig
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File listing for experiment exp9.4.4_LPC Description MATLAB script for testing experiment MATLAB GUI
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Table 9.15 MATLAB code for LPC all-pole modeling
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N=256; % fs=8000; % f=fs*(0:(N/2-1))/N; % KEY = 1:16; % % col| row KEY(1+1) =0016+0001; KEY(1+2) =0032+0001; KEY(1+3) =0064+0001; KEY(1+10)=0128+0001; KEY(1+4) =0016+0002; KEY(1+5) =0032+0002; KEY(1+6) =0064+0002; KEY(1+11)=0128+0002; KEY(1+7) =0016+0004; KEY(1+8) =0032+0004; KEY(1+9) =0064+0004; KEY(1+12)=0128+0004; KEY(1+14)=0016+0008; KEY(1+0) =0032+0008; KEY(1+15)=0064+0008; KEY(1+13)=0128+0008;
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Length of FFT Sampling frequency Frequency scale for display Keypad map lookup table index
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% Table lookup for Keys DIGIT =['0','1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9','A','B','C','D','*','#']; freq = [697 770 852 941 1209 1336 1477 1633]; digi = [1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128]; lpcOrder=10; % LPC order w=hamming(N); % Generate Hamming window fid=fopen('.\\data\\data.pcm','r'); % Open the PCM data file prevDigit = 0; while feof(fid) x = fread(fid,N,'short'); if size(x) = N continue; end % Check energy if sum(abs(x)) <= 200000 prevDigit = 0; else % Compute autocorrelation x=x.*w; % Windowing m=0; while (m<=lpcOrder); r(m+1)=sum(x(1:(N-m)).*x((1+m):N)); m=m+1; end; a=levinson(r,lpcOrder); % Levinson algorithm % Calculate root r=roots(a); % Find roots amp=abs(r); % Get amplitudes ang=(angle(r)*fs/pi/2); % Get angles % Compare with the table
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Table 9.15 (continued )
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AmpThreahold = 0.98; % 0.02% AngThreahold = 5; % 5 Hz dtmf =0; for i=1:2:(lpcOrder) if abs(amp(i)) >= AmpThreahold for j = 1:8 if (abs(ang(i)) <= (freq(j)+AngThreahold)) if (abs(ang(i)) >= (freq(j)-AngThreahold)) dtmf = dtmf + digi(j); end end end end end % Check if dtmf detected dtmfDet=0; for i=1:16 if dtmf == KEY(i) dtmfDet =i; end end % Display result if dtmfDet = 0 if (DIGIT(dtmfDet) = prevDigit) disp(sprintf('%s is detected', DIGIT(dtmfDet))); prevDigit = DIGIT(dtmfDet); end else prevDigit = 0; end end end fclose(fid);
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4. Validate the DTMF digits displayed on MATLAB command window are correctly decoded. 5. If the all-pole lter order is 4, is it possible to nd the root of the lter that matches the DTMF frequency Modify the experiment to validate your claim.
References
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[1] ITU-T Recommendation Q.23, Technical Features of Push-Button Telephone Sets, 1993. [2] ITU-T Recommendation Q.24, Multifrequency Push-Button Signal Reception, 1993. [3] 3GPP TR-T12-26.975 V6.0.0, Performance Characterization of the Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) Speech Codec (Release 6), Dec. 2004. [4] TI Application Report, DTMF Tone Generation and Detection An Implementation Using the TMS320C54x, SPRA 096A, May 2000. [5] W. Tian and Y. Lu, System and method for DTMF detection using likelihood ratios, US Patent no. 6,873,701, Mar. 2005.
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[6] Y. Lu and W. Tian, DTMF detection based on LPC coef cients, US Patent no. 6,590,972, July 2003. [7] F. F. Tzeng, Dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) signaling transparency for low-data-rate vocoder, US Patent no. 5,459,784, Oct. 1995. [8] R. Rabipour and M. Beyrouti, LPC-based DTMF receiver for secondary signaling, US Patent no. 4,853,958, Aug. 1989. [9] C. Lee and D.Y. Wong, Digital tone decoder and method of decoding tones using linear prediction coding, US Patent no. 4,689,760, Aug. 1987. [10] N. Ahmed and T. Natarajan, Discrete-Time Signals and Systems, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983. [11] MATLAB, Version 7.0.1 Release 14, Sep. 2004. [12] A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989. [13] S. J. Orfanidis, Introduction to Signal Processing, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [14] J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms, and Applications, 3rd Ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996. [15] A Bateman and W. Yates, Digital Signal Processing Design, New York: Computer Science Press, 1989. [16] J. Hartung, S. L. Gay, and G. L. Smith, Dual-tone Multifrequency Receiver Using the WE DSP16 Digital Signal Processor, Application Note, AT&T, 1988. [17] Analog Devices, Digital Signal Processing Applications Using the ADSP-2100 Family, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. [18] P. Mock, Add DTMF Generation and Decoding to DSP-uP Designs, Digital Signal Processing Applications with the TMS320 Family, Texas Instruments, 1986, Chap. 19. [19] J. S. Lim and A. V. Oppenheim, Enhancement and bandwidth compression of noisy speech, Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 67, Dec. 1979, pp. 1586 1604. [20] J. R. Deller, Jr., J. G. Proakis, and J. H. L. Hansen, Discrete-Time Processing of Speech Signals, New York: MacMillan, 1993. [21] H. Schulzrinne and S. Petrack, RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals, Request for Comments 2833 (RFC2833), May 2000. [22] H. Schulzrinne and S. Casner, RTP Pro le for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control, IETF RFC3551, July 2003.
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