Digital Image Systems in .NET

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15.1.2 Digital Image Systems
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A simpli ed digital image system is shown in Figure 15.1. The input image captured by the sensor is sent to the processing unit, and the processed image is presented to storage media, display device, or
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Processing
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Storage (a) Simplified digital image system block diagram. Bayer RGB to RGB CFA interpolation Gamma correction and white balance RGB color space processing
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(b) Functional blocks of the image processing system.
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Figure 15.1 Block diagram of digital image system: (a) simpli ed digital image system block diagram; (b) functional blocks of the image processing system
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RGB COLOR SPACES AND COLOR FILTER ARRAY INTERPOLATION
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A 16 12 Bayer RGB color pattern
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transmitted over the network. The data acquisition device can be a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. These image sensors convert the light, or scene, into electrical signals and store them in an array of area with n-by-m memory. Most CCD and CMOS sensors for digital still cameras range from 2560 1920 pixels (5M pixels) to 3072 2304 (7M pixels). The sensor image data stored in memory is usually arranged as an array of n-by-m colored digital elements. This format is called Bayer RGB pattern. The Bayer RGB pattern is the most popular image format used for CCD and CMOS sensors. Figure 15.2 shows a 16 12 Bayer RGB color image. For these 192 pixels, half of them are green, one-quarter are red, and one-quarter are blue. The CCD or CMOS sensors can output pixels in a line-by-line sequential order. For example, the output can be in the form of GRGRGR. . . GR for even lines, and BGBGBG. . . BG for odd lines. There are several representations of color images used in digital video display and image processing. A color space represents colors using digital pixels. A B&W image uses one number for each pixel, while the color image needs multiple numbers per pixel.
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15.2 RGB Color Spaces and Color Filter Array Interpolation
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For digital cameras or video camcorders, a sensor is often used to capture the photon signal and convert it into electronic signal. A CCD sensor has high quality and often used for high-end photographic equipments; however, the CCD sensor also has high power consumption. A CMOS sensor requires less power, and thus is often used in portable devices such as wireless camera phones where power consumption is an important issue. The image sensors output 2-D Bayer RGB color signals as shown in Figure 15.2. The RGB pattern from an image sensor is called color lter array (CFA) RGB. In a CFA RGB pattern, each pixel contains only partial information. As shown in Figure 15.2, the 16 12 Bayer RGB pattern is consisted only of 96 green pixels, 48 red pixels, and 48 blue pixels. To make a true RGB color space, each pixel must have three data values to represent the three primary color components. The process of converting the Bayer RGB to a true RGB color space is called CFA RGB interpolation. The interpolation process nds and lls in the missing pixels. Figure 15.3 shows the RGB color space after the CFA interpolation from the Bayer RGB color pattern given in Figure 15.2. Since each color pixel uses three numbers, the RGB color space contains three times of numbers than the Bayer RGB. The RGB color space shown in Figure 15.3 contains 192 3 numbers. In RGB color space, the other colors are obtained by proper mixing of the R, G, and B primary colors. To convert the Bayer RGB pattern to the RGB color space, we need to interpolate two missing color values for each pixel. There are several methods to perform CFA interpolation, including linear, nearest neighbor, and cubic etc., with different complexities and speeds. Because the pixel interpolation is
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