N 1 j in .NET

Encode Quick Response Code in .NET N 1 j
N 1 j
Qr-codes integrated for .net
generate, create denso qr bar code none on .net projects
Rn ( j) =
QR Code JIS X 0510 barcode library on .net
Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications.
sn (m)sn (m + j),
.net Framework bar code decoder with .net
Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
j = 0, 1, 2, . . , p,
Bar Code barcode library in .net
generate, create bar code none for .net projects
(11.2)
Control qr code 2d barcode image with c#.net
using visual studio .net todeploy qr barcode for asp.net web,windows application
where N is the window (or frame) size, n is the frame index, and m is the sample index in the frame. We need to solve the following matrix equation to derive the prediction lter coef cients ai : Rn (0) Rn (1) . . . Rn ( p 1) Rn (1) Rn (0) . .. . . . Rn ( p 2) Rn ( p 1) Rn (1) a1 Rn ( p 2) a2 Rn (2) . = . . . . . . . . . Rn (0) Rn ( p) ap
(11.3)
Control qr barcode size with visual basic
to receive denso qr bar code and qr codes data, size, image with vb.net barcode sdk
The left-hand side matrix is symmetric, all the elements on its main diagonal are equal, and the elements on any other diagonal parallel to the main diagonal are also equal. This square matrix is Toeplitz. Several ef cient recursive algorithms have been derived for solving Equation (11.3). The most widely used
Bar Code barcode library on .net
generate, create barcode none with .net projects
SPEECH-CODING TECHNIQUES
Use code39 for .net
use visual studio .net 3 of 9 barcode creation toinclude code 39 extended on .net
algorithm is the Levinson Durbin recursion summarized as follows:
Compose linear barcode in .net
using .net vs 2010 crystal toconnect linear barcode in asp.net web,windows application
(0) (0) E n = Rn
Code128b generator on .net
using barcode implementation for visual studio .net crystal control to generate, create code 128 code set c image in visual studio .net crystal applications.
(11.4)
Intelligent Mail encoder on .net
use visual .net crystal onecode printer toassign usps intelligent mail for .net
i 1 j=1
Use ean-13 on visual basic.net
generate, create ean-13 supplement 5 none in vb.net projects
Rn (i) ki = ai(i) = ki a (i) j = a (i 1) j
Generate linear in word
use microsoft word linear barcode encoder todisplay linear barcode for microsoft word
a (i 1) Rn (|i j|) j (11.5) (11.6)
Denso QR Bar Code barcode library on visual c#
generate, create qr barcode none in visual c#.net projects
(i 1) En
Bar Code barcode library in .net
generate, create barcode none for .net projects
(i 1) ki ai j
Asp.net Aspx Crystal code 39 generator on .net c#
generate, create code 3 of 9 none with visual c# projects
1 j i 1
Deploy code 39 extended for vb
using barcode integrating for web.net crystal control to generate, create code39 image in web.net crystal applications.
(11.7) (11.8)
Build ecc200 on excel spreadsheets
using barcode drawer for excel spreadsheets control to generate, create ecc200 image in excel spreadsheets applications.
(i) (i 1) E n = 1 ki2 E n .
SQL Server Reporting Service 1d generation with .net
using barcode encoder for reporting services control to generate, create 1d barcode image in reporting services applications.
After solving these equations recursively for i = 1, 2, . . . , p, the parameters ai are given by aj = aj
( p)
1 j p.
(11.9)
Example 11.1: Consider the order p = 3 and given autocorrelation coef cients Rn ( j), j = 0, 1, 2, 3, for a frame of speech signal. Calculate the LPC coef cients. We need to solve the following matrix equation:
Rn (0) Rn (1) Rn (2) Rn (1) Rn (0) Rn (1) a1 Rn (2) Rn (1) Rn (1) a2 = Rn (2) . Rn (0) a3 Rn (3)
This matrix equation can be solved recursively as follows: For i = 1:
(0) (0) E n = Rn
k1 =
Rn (1)
(0) En
Rn (1) Rn (0)
(1) a1 = k 1 =
Rn (1) Rn (0)
2 Rn (1) Rn (0). 2 Rn (0)
(1) 2 E n = 1 k1 Rn (0) = 1
(1) (1) For i = 2, E n and a1 are available from i = 1. Thus, we have (1) Rn (2) a1 Rn (1) (1) En 2 Rn (0)Rn (2) Rn (1) 2 2 Rn (0) Rn (1)
k2 =
(2) a2 = k 2 (2) (1) (1) (1) a1 = a1 k2 a1 = (1 k2 ) a1 (1) (2) 2 E n = 1 k2 E n .
OVERVIEW OF CELP VOCODERS
(2) (2) (2) For i = 3, E n , a1 , and a2 are available from i = 2. Thus, we get
k3 =
(2) (2) Rn (3) a1 Rn (2) + a2 Rn (1) (2) En
(3) a3 = k 3 (3) (2) (2) a1 = a1 k 3 a2 (3) (2) (2) a2 = a2 k 3 a1 .
Finally, we have
(3) (3) (3) a0 = 1, a1 = a1 , a2 = a2 , a3 = a3 .
We can use MATLAB functions provided in the Signal Processing Toolbox to calculate LPC coef cients. For example, the LPC coef cients can be calculated using the Levinson Durbin recursion as
[a,e] = levinson(r,p)
The parameter r is a deterministic autocorrelation sequence (vector), p is the order of denominator polynomial A(z), a = [a(1) a(2) a( p + 1)] where a(1) = 1, and the prediction error e. The function lpc(x,p) determines the coef cients of forward linear predictor by minimizing the prediction error in the least-square sense. The command
[a,g] = lpc(x,p)
nds the coef cients of a linear predictor that predicts the current value of the real-valued time series x based on past samples. This function returns prediction coef cients a and error variances g.
Example 11.2: Given a speech le voice4.pcm, calculate the LPC coef cients and spectral response using the function levinson( ). Also, compare the contours of speech spectrum with the synthesis lter s frequency response. Assume that the LPC order is 10 and Hamming window size is 256. The partial MATLAB code to calculate the LPC coef cients is listed in Table 11.1. The complete MATLAB program is given in example11_2.m. The magnitude response of the synthesis lter shows the envelope of the speech spectrum as shown in Figure 11.2. Example 11.3: Calculate the LPC coef cients as in Example 11.2 using the function lpc instead of levinson. In this case, g and e are identical if using the same order, and the LPC coef cients are identical to Example 11.2. Using a high-order synthesis lter, the frequency response is closer to the original speech spectrum. Figure 11.3 shows the use of high order (42) to calculate the LPC coef cients using lpc.