PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES TABLE 5.1 in .NET

Integrate Code-128 in .NET PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES TABLE 5.1
130 PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES TABLE 5.1
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Mean IQs across the adult lifespan on the W-B I, WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS-III for designated cross-sectional age groups
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Verbal IQ Age Group 20 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 69 70 74 75+ W-BI WAIS WAIS-R WAIS-III 100 100 98 95 93 98 100 99 97 95 91 85 80 96 98 94 95 93 91 90 87 97 100 102 104 99 98 97 93 Performance IQ W-BI WAIS WAIS-R WAIS-III 105 100 93 86 83 102 100 95 89 84 80 72 66 101 99 93 89 84 79 76 72 99 99 97 92 86 81 79 74 Full Scale IQ W-B I WAIS WAIS-R WAIS-III 103 103 95 91 88 100 100 98 93 90 86 78 73 97 97 94 92 88 84 82 78 98 100 100 99 94 90 89 83
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NOTE: W-B I data for ages 55 64 are based only on adults ages 55 59. All sums of scaled scores for all scales are based on scaled-score norms for ages 20 34. Mean IQs for the WB-I, WAIS, and WAIS-R are based on the IQ conversion table for ages 25 34; mean IQs for the WAIS-III are based on the IQ conversion table for all ages. WAIS data for ages 65 69 through 75+ are for the stratified elderly sample tested by Doppelt and Wallace (1955). WAIS-R data for ages 20 74 are
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from Kaufman, Reynolds, and McLean (1989). WAIS-R data for ages 75+ are for the stratified elderly sample tested by Ryan, Paolo, and Brungardt (1990), and were kindly provided by Ryan (personal communication, March, 1998) for 115 individuals ages 75 89. WAIS-III data for all ages are from Kaufman (2001). Standardization data of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Third Edition. Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. Used by permission. All rights reserved.
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TABLE 5.2
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Percents of the standardization samples of the WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS-III with 0 8 and 13+ years of schooling, by age group 0 8 Years of Schooling Age Group 20 24 25 34 35 44 45 54 55 64 65 69 70 74 75 79 80 89 WAIS (1953) 22 25 40 54 66 WAIS-R (1978) 4 5 10 16 28 38 45 WAIS-III (1995) 4 4 4 8 14 18 16 19 32 13+ Years of Schooling WAIS (1953) 20 20 18 14 11 WAIS-R (1978) 40 44 32 26 19 19 16 WAIS-III (1995) 51 51 56 49 36 30 29 29 22
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NOTE: Data are from the manuals for the WAIS (Wechsler, 1955), WAIS-R (Wechsler, 1981), and WAIS-III (Psychological Corporation, 1997).
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AGE AND INTELLIGENCE ACROSS THE ADULT LIFE SPAN
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standardization samples, showing the percent in each sample with 0 8 years of schooling and the percent with 13 or more years of schooling (at least one year of college). This table reveals the folly of interpreting changes in mean scores from age to age as evidence of developmental change. Good standardization samples match the U.S. Census proportions on key background variables, and some variables, like educational attainment, differ widely from age group to age group. With each passing decade, an increasing proportion of adults stay longer in elementary and high school, and more and more people attend college. Consequently, the younger adult age groups will tend to be relatively more educated than the older adult age groups. Similarly, any age group tested in the early 1950s on the WAIS will be considerably less educated than that same age group tested in the late 1970s on the WAIS-R, which, in turn, will be less educated than its age-mates in the mid-1990s WAIS-III sample. These facts are quite evident in Table 5.2; comparable data for the WechslerBellevue I (Wechsler, 1939) were not available, although the lower level of education for the total adolescent and adult W-B I sample (Matarazzo, 1972, Table 9.3) was evident from the low percentage of high school graduates (10.8). When Tables 5.1 and 5.2 are viewed together, it is evident that the lower IQs earned by older adults, relative to younger adults, mirror the older adults lower level of education. For example, for the WAIS-R sample, 45% of adults ages 70 74 had less than 9 years of schooling, compared to only 5% of those ages 25 34; for the WAIS-III sample, the corresponding percentages were 16 and 4 (see Table 5.2). In 1995, virtually all age groups had more formal education than comparable age groups in 1978, yet the fewer years of education for older than younger samples remains a fact of life at any point in time. Maybe the entire decline in mean IQs across the adult lifespan is illusory, reflecting nothing more than the higher level of educational attainment for the younger age groups relative to the older ones. That possibility was
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explored with WAIS standardization data about 40 years ago in the United States (Birren & Morrison, 1961) and about 30 years ago in Puerto Rico (Green, 1969). Interestingly, these two cross-sectional studies gave different answers to the question. However, subsequent studies with the WAIS-R (Kaufman et al., 1989), WAIS-III (Kaufman, 2000a, 2001), and Kaufman tests (e.g., Kaufman & Horn, 1996) have provided more definitive data for answering the aging-IQ questions via cross-sectional methodology. Birren and Morrison s (1961) Study of Caucasian Adults on the WAIS Birren and Morrison (1961) controlled education level statistically by parceling out years of education from the correlation of each WAIS subtest with chronological age, using standardization data for 933 Caucasian males and females aged 25 64. KEY FINDINGS. Scores on each of the 11 subtests initially correlated negatively with age, with all Performance subtests correlating more negatively ( .28 to .46) than did the Verbal tasks ( .02 to .19). After statistically removing the influence of educational attainment from the correlations, four of the six Verbal subtests produced positive correlations, with the highest coefficients obtained for Vocabulary (.22) and Information (.17). The two Verbal subtests that remained negative (Similarities, .04, and Digit Span, .08) are not very dependent on formal schooling, in stark contrast to the two Verbal subtests with the highest positive coefficients. On the Performance Scale, the removal of education level did not erase the negative correlations between IQ and age; partial correlations were only slightly lower (about .10) than the original coefficients, and they remained statistically significant. Some of the partial correlations were strongly negative, even after the statistical removal of education, notably Digit Symbol ( .38) and Picture Arrangement (-.27). Although Birren and Morrison (1961) did not conduct these analyses with the three IQ scales,
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132 PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES their study did show the decrease in mean V-IQ with age but not the decrement in P-IQ to be an artifact of education level. In fact, the positive correlations with some Verbal subtests suggest an increase in test scores with increasing age. Green s (1969) Spanish WAIS Study for Education-Balanced Groups Green approached the problem differently in his analysis of the Puerto Rican standardization data for the Spanish WAIS. He added and subtracted subjects from each of four age groups (25 29, 35 39, 45 49, and 55 64) until they were balanced on educational attainment. Each of the education-balanced samples comprised about 135 adults (total sample = 539), with mean years of education ranging from 7.6 to 7.8. KEY FINDINGS. Before balancing for education, Verbal scores increased through the early 40s and then began a slight decline; Performance scores started to decrease in the 20s, with a more dramatic decline beginning during the 40s. The unbalanced samples differed widely in education level, but even the youngest sample averaged only about 8 years of education (the oldest averaged a third-grade education). Green s equated samples demonstrated an increase in Verbal sums of scaled scores and only a slight decrement in Performance scores, as shown in Table 5.3. (The mean values have been adjusted for education level and urban rural residence, and are from Green s Table 4.) Green concluded from his analyses that Intelligence as measured by the WAIS does not decline in the Puerto Rican population before about age 65.... [T]he same conclusion is almost certainly true for the United States (p. 626). Despite Birren and Morrison s (1961) contradictory finding with the WAIS Performance Scale, for years Green s assertions have been tacitly accepted by writers such as Labouvie-Vief (1985), who praised his work as the most careful study thus far of education-related effects on patterns of intellectual aging (p. 515), but failed to point out the limited generalizability of his results. Whether the increment in V-IQ with age, coupled with the apparent lack of a sizable decrement in P-IQ, generalizes to samples that are higher in education is surely not intuitive; Green s (1969, Tables 1 and 2) groups averaged less than 8 years of education, with 43% having between 0 and 5 years of formal education. Kausler (1982) correctly stated that Green s study has high internal validity, but low external validity. Hence, one can generalize the causative role played by education to other samples, but the age differences found for his balanced groups no longer estimate accurately the age differences extant for the entire population of adults living in Puerto Rico (p. 73). Kausler might have added that one ought to be cautious in generalizing Green s results to more educated samples. Kaufman, Reynolds, and McLean s (1989) Study of the WAIS-R Kaufman et al. analyzed the WAIS-R standardization data for ages 20 to 74 years (N = 1,480), a sample that was carefully stratified on gender, race (Caucasian non-Caucasian), geographic region, educational attainment, and occupation. In
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