Clinical Implications of Gender Differences on Mental Tasks in .NET

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Clinical Implications of Gender Differences on Mental Tasks
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The results of gender differences on major intelligence tests are of limited generalizability regarding a theoretical understanding of male versus female intellectual functions. The results are contaminated because, as noted, test developers have avoided gender bias whenever possible when selecting tasks and items. Thus, the mean gender differences in global IQs are undoubtedly an artifact of the specific subtests included in the WAIS-III, KAIT, and other tests; to some extent, differences in subtest scores (such as WAIS-III Information or KAIT Famous Faces) may be an artifact of the specific items chosen for each subtest. However, it is possible to reach some hypotheses about true male female differences on some of the subtests (Kaufman et al., 1988). It is hard to imagine how any Block Design or Digit Symbol items could have been eliminated due to gender bias (or any other kind of bias) because of the abstract, nonmeaningful nature of the stimuli; similarly, Arithmetic items are far more dependent on the computational process than on the verbal content, and therefore are not reasonably subject to the potential impact of bias. Consequently, it seems reasonable to conclude that adult males
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are superior to adult females in the skills assessed by WAIS-III Block Design and Arithmetic and KAIT Memory for Block Designs, and that adult females clearly outstrip adult males in the ability measured by Digit Symbol. All of these conclusions are quite consistent with the bodies of research discussed in the previous sections. However, even the WAIS-III and KAIT subtests that yielded the largest gender differences produced differences of about 0.40 to 0.50 SD, which reflect small (or, at best, moderate) effect sizes (McLean, 1995). Consequently, even the tried-and-true gender differences produce discrepancies on adult intelligence tests that are too small to be of very much clinical value.
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This section reports data on ethnic differences, focusing on the groups for which there are ample data based on research with the WAIS-III and other individually administered intelligence tests for adolescents and adults: Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics.
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Differences between Caucasians and African Americans
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The difference of about 1 standard deviation in the IQs earned by Caucasians and African Americans, identified for numerous samples with a wide variety of tests (Hauser, 1998; Lichtenberger, Broadbooks, & Kaufman, 2000; Puente & Salazar, 1998) and seemingly impervious to time, also is similar to the trends seen on the WAIS-III. WAIS-III IQs and Factor Indexes With a statistical adjustment for age, but not for educational attainment, Caucasians outscored African Americans on the four WAIS-III indexes at ages 20 89 years by about .80 SD to nearly 1.0 SD (Manly, Heaton, Taylor, 2000), differences of about 12 to 15 standard-score points. When cor-
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rected for age, gender, and education in a subsample of the standardization sample, ages 20 to 89 years, based on data for 1,734 whites and 282 African Americans (Heaton, et al., 2001), the following differences were observed: Caucasians outscored African Americans by 0.73 of a standard deviation on V-IQ, .83 of a standard deviation on P-IQ, and .86 of a standard deviation on FS-IQ, discrepancies of about 11 to 13 IQ points. When corrected for age, gender, and education, Caucasian African American differences on the factor indexes ranged from .66 SD on WMI to .84 SD on POI, differences corresponding to 10 to 121 2 standard-score points. The age-, gender-, and education-adjusted mean IQs and Indexes for African Americans spanned the narrow range of about 89 to 92, when the z scores presented by Heaton et al. (2001) are converted to standard scores with mean = 100 and SD = 15. In contrast, WISC-III means at ages 6 16 years for a sample of African Americans matched to a sample of Caucasian on age, gender, parental education, and other variables spanned the much wider range of 88.8 on POI to 96.9 on PSI and 97.0 on FDI (Prifitera, Weiss, & Saklofske, 1998, Table 1.2). The effect sizes for Caucasian-African American differences on the WISC-III for the P-IQ, FS-IQ, and POI are similar to the values reported for the WAIS-III, ranging from 0.73 to 0.85, but the WISC-III effect sizes are smaller for V-IQ and VCI (0.59), and much smaller for FDI (WMI) and PSI (0.27 0.37) (Prifitera et al., 1998). In general, then, discrepancies between Caucasians and African Americans on the Wechsler IQs and indexes are larger for adults than for children and adolescents. Prifitera et al. (1998, Table 1.4) divided their matched samples into two broad age groups (6 11 years, N = 143 African Americans; 12 16, N = 109), and presented IQ and index differences between Caucasians and African Americans for these two broad groups. Their results, when juxtaposed with Heaton et al. s (2001) findings, reveal changes in effect sizes from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. The effect sizes for all three IQs and for VCI and POI are much higher at ages 12 16
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102 PART II INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON AGE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND OTHER KEY VARIABLES than at ages 6 11, and the adolescent values are even higher than the adult values. For FDI (WMI) and PSI, the effect sizes increased with increasing age. WAIS-R IQs WAIS-R IQ differences for Caucasians and African Americans, uncorrected for education, were quite similar to uncorrected WAIS-III index differences reported by Manly et al. (2000), as CauTABLE 4.2 casians scored higher on WAIS-R IQs by about 1 1 2 points on V-IQ, 14 points on P-IQ, and 141 2 points on FS-IQ. Table 4.2 presents interesting data for WAIS-R IQs Caucasian African American IQ differences for groups differing in age, gender, education, and occupation provided by Reynolds et al. (1987) and presented here because comparable data are not available for the WAIS-III. The Caucasian-African American differences on the WAIS-R are a virtual constant across age
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Differences in the mean WAIS-R IQs earned by Caucasians and African Americans, by age, gender, education, and occupation
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Verbal IQ African Caucasians Americans Diff. Performance IQ African Caucasians Americans Diff. Full Scale IQ African Caucasians Americans Diff.
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Variable Age 16 19 20 34 35 54 55 74 Gender Male Female Education 0 8 Years 9 11 Years 12 Years 13+ Years Occupation Prof./Tech./Mgr./ Cler./Sales/Skilled Semiskilled and Unskilled Not in Labor Force
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